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corbitt A&P

hematology= study of blood and its disorders
formed elements erythrocytes - red blood cells RBCs leukocytes - white blood cells WBCs platelets
platelets are also known as thrombocytes
plamsa= liquid in blood 90% H2o
plasma proteins are the most abundant solutes
albumin is the most abundant plasma protein
what is plasma clotting factor serum
The average adult has how much blood 4-6qts
Venous blood is darker in color due to containing less oxygen
arterial blood is bright red due to high levels of oxygen
what is the pH level of blood 7.35-7.45 avg 7.4
Viscosity= thickness
viscosity of blood contributes normal blood pressure
erythrocytes do what carry oxygen to all the cells in the body
What happens when old RBCs are destroyed the waste product bilirubin is formed and excreted by the liver in bile
Hgb (or Hb)= hemoglobin
henogolbin= iron containing pigment in blood and oxygen carrying protein
Hct= hematocrit
hematocrit is the % of RBCs
how many erythrocytes are in a mm3 of blood 4.5 to 6 million per 1 drop
what is the normal range of Hgb in males 13-18 g/dl
what is the normal range of Hgb in females 12-16 g/dl
the % of red blood cells is known as hematocrit
anemia= low iron, decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of blood
reticulocyte= an immature red blood cell
an immature red blood cell matures in 2-5 days and lives 120 days
H & H = hemoglobin and hematocrit
if hypoxia occurs the kidneys produce the hormone erythropoitin to stimulate red bone marrow to increase red cell production
hypoxia= deficiency of oxygen to the cells
anucleate= a mature RBC - has no nucleus
diapedesis= ability to slip into and out of blood cells
WBCs do what protect the body from disease, provides immunity for certain diseases
How many WBCs are in a mm3 of blood 4000-11000 mm3
leukocyctosis= increase of WBCs
leukoopenia= decrease in WBCs
leukemia = increase in WBCs, but they are immature
list 3 types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
neutrophils= increases during short term acute infections
eosinophils= increase during allergy attacks
basophils= release histamines at the site of inflammation
list 2 types of agranulocytes monocytes, lymphocytes
monocytes= increase during chronic infections
lymphocytes= part of the immune system
function in hemostasis which means blood clotting
how many plalelets are in a mm3 of blood 150000 -400000
thrombocytopenia= decrease in platelets
normally blood clots in 2 -5 minutes
hematopoiesis= formation of blood cells
where does hematopoiesis occur flat and irregular bones
hemophilia= free bleeder, disorder of inadequate production of blood clotting factors, passed from mother to males, inherited
pica= craving for non-food items
Universal blood donor type is o-
universal blood recipient type is AB+
erythroblastosis fetalis = RH incapability of the infant (infant will need a blood transfusion)
hemorrhage= excessive bleeding (internal & external)
where is the heart located apex to left, behind sternum, in the middle between the lungs
name the receiving chambers of the heart right and left atrium
name the discharging chambers of the heart right and left ventricles
endocardium= inner layer
myocardium= middle layer (muscle layer)
epicardium= outer layer
pericardium= fiberous sac that holds the heart
apex= pointed left at the bottom of the heart
which vessels supply the heart with oxygenated blood coronary vessels
which is the largest artery in the body aorta
name the parts of the conduction pathway of the heart SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
tachycardia= rapid heartbeat greater than 100 BPM
bradycardia= heartbeat less than 60 BPM
systole= heart at work
diastole= heart at rest
how long is a cardiac cycle 0.8 seconds
what is the range of pulse rate (for adults) 60-80 BPM
cardiac output= amount of blood pumped in 1 min
how long is circulation time 1 min
CHF= congestive heart failure
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood toward the heart
the sites of gas exchange are the capillaries
arteries are the thickest
veins are thinner the arteries
capillaries are thinnest of arteries and veins
what types of vessels have values and what are there purpose veins; to prevent back flow
varicose veins= abnormal large or swollen veins
hemorrhoid= dilated veins in swollen tissue in the rectum
esophageal varices= dilated veins in the esophagus
what is the longest vein in the body saphenous
The umbilical cord has 2 arteries and 1 vein
describe the foremen ovale a hole in the heart between the right atrium and left atrium in the heart of the fetus
pulse= expansion and recoil of an artery
temporal pressure point is located side of head above the ears
carotid pressure point is located in the neck
radial pressure point is located wrist, thumbside
femoral pressure point is located groin
popliteal pressure point is located back of knee
pedal pressure point is located top of the foot
blood pressure= the pressure the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels
essential hypertension= hypertension with no known cause
HTN= hypertension
korotkoff sounds= arteriole sounds when checking BP
vasoconstriction= narrowing of the blood vessels
what effect does vasoconstriction have on BP increases it
vasodilation= opened blood vessels
what effect does vasodilation have on blood pressure decreases BP
ANP (or ANH)= arterial natriuretic peptide, and its secreted by the atria of the heart
what is the normal BP 90/60 to 140/90
HDL= high density lipoprotein - good cholesterol
LDL= low density lipoprotein
HDL carries fat away from the cells
LDL carries fat to the cells
atherosclerosis= build up of plaque
arteriosclersosis= hardening of the arteries
lymph= tissue fluid that enters the lymph capillaries
where are the main group of lymph nodes located cervical(neck), axillary (armpit), inguinal (groin)
where are Peyer's patches located small intestines
which gland is large in childern and shrinks with age thymus
antigen= foreign substance - chemical marker that identify the cells
antibody= responds to foreign substances - labels foreign protein for destruction
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus - target T cells
Types of immunity Active, passive, genetic
Active immunity requires antibodies/ natural or acquired, body actively participates
Passive immunity borrowed immunity, vaccination Natural for infant for the 1st 6 months
Genetic immunity does not involve antibodies, innate
allergen substances that causes allergic reaction
where is the spleen located left side of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm
Kehr's sign= shoulder pain on left side due to a ruptured spleen
The spleen does what removes aged RBC's
Is the spleen vital no - other organs will pick up the spleens function
What hormones effect the venus return ADH, Aldosterone, ANH
ANH is secreted from the atrium of the heart
Created by: jhowe2323



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