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Path 8 Parasites


Leading cause of death (cerebral) under 5 y/o in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito. Infectious stage is sporozoite. Causes RBCs to clump together and stick to endothel lining small blood vessels->ischemia downstream. Splenomega Malaria (Plasmodium)
Transmitted by deer ticks w white footed mouse as reservoir. Attack RBCs->fever and hemolytic anemia. Blood smear shows Maltese cross tetrads. Babesiosis (B. microti)
Chronic inflamm of skin, mucous membs, or viscera d/t obligate intracell, kinetoplastid protozoan parasites transmitted by sandflies. Endemic in Middle East, S. Asia, Africa, Latin America. Leishmaniasis - Visceral: L. donovani, L. chagasi. - Cutaneous (granulomatous): L. major, L. mexicana, L. braziliensis - Mucocutaneous: L. braziliensis
Kinetoplastid parasites that proliferate as extracell forms in blood->sustained or intermittent (WAVES OF) fevers, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, SLEEPING SICKNESS, chachexia, death. Tsetse flies are reservoir, red rubbery chancre at bite. Mott cells African Trypanosomiasis - T. b. rhodesiense = East Africa, acute, virulent - T. b. gambiense = West Africa, chronic
Transmitted by Reduvid "kissing" bugs. Amastigote activation by acidic phagolysosome-> lyse cells-> penetrate smooth, skeletal, and heart muscle. Dilated cardiomyopathy Chagas (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Worms live in soil, penetrate skin, travel in circulation to lungs, travel up trachea to be swallowed. Cause diarrhea, bloating in immunocompromised and can AUTOINFECT. Strongyloidiasis
Parasite w head (scolex) that has suckers and hooklets that attach to intestinal wall and segments called proglottids (distal ones have eggs and detach into feces). Can cause cysts in brain tissue. Tapeworms - Taenia solium from pork - T. saginata from beef - Diphyllobothrium latum from fish Hydatid disease from ingesting Echinococcus granulosus eggs. can cause liver cysts.
Ingested by eating undercooked pigs, boars, horses. cause fever, myalgia, marked eosinophilia, and periorbital edema. Coiled larvae that encyst in striated skeletal muscle w rich blood supply (diaphragm, extraocular, laryngeal, deltoid muscles). Trichinosis (Trichinella spiralis)
Transmitted by fresh water snails. cause white granulomas throughout gut and liver and pipe-stem fibrosis->hepatic cirrhosis. can also line wall of bladder->calcified bladder and association w squamous cell CA of bladder Schistosomiasis
Nematode transmitted by mosquitoes. Asymptomatic microfilaremia, Recurrent lymphadenitis, Elephantiasis, Tropical pulm eosinophilia. Symbiotic relationship w Wolbachia bacteria Lymphatic Filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti)
Nematode transmitted by black flies. Causes "River blindness" and leopard/lizard/elephant skin, and Progressive eye lesions beginning w punctate keratitis w fluffy opacities of the cornea->sclerosing keratitis. Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus)
Created by: Jakphooey