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imperialism policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political dominance over other nations
Suez Canal important by the British because it created the shortest route to India
Suez Canal British bought stock in 1875 and established complete control in the 1880's
Suez Canal controlling it was a centerpiece of British foreign policy
J.A. Hobson subscribed to the idea that imperialism was the result of the last stages of capitalism
J.A. Hobson "imperialism is the monopoly stage of capitalism"
jingoism "We don't want to fight, but if we do, We've got the men, We've got the ships; We've got the money too!"
jingoism the idea of "super patriotism"
eastern Question related to the collapsing Ottoman Empire- about which Bismarck said "it is not worth the healthy bones of a single Pomeranian musketeer"
Congress of Berlin Bismarck considered himself an "honest broker"
Congress of Berlin occurred to review the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano
Congress of Berlin results were a blow to Russia as Austria-Hungary was given Bosnia and Herzegovina to "occupy and administer" although they were supposed to still be under Ottoman rule
William II confused policy toward Britain- one in which he admired them and wanted them for an ally but decided to make trouble for Britain reflected his mixed dislike and jealousy and admiration for the Brits
William II policy led to considerable animosity between Germany and Britain, something Bismarck had sought to avoid
entente cordiale not a formal treaty and had no military provisions, but it settled all outstanding colonial differences between Britain and France
entente cordiale gave France a free hand in Morocco in return for French recognition of British control over Egypt
1st Moroccan Crisis confrontation between Germany and France led to a conference in Algeciras in 1906 at which Austria sided with Germany but Spain, Italy, Russia and the U.S. sided with France and Great Britain
1st Moroccan Crisis the germans received trivial concessions; the result was a closer relationship between Britain and France
Kruger telegram Kaisser William II congratulated the Boers for repulsing a British raid "without having to appeal to friendly powers"; worsened relations between Germany and Britain
Alfred von Tirpitz "architect" of the new Germany navy; openly proclaimed that Germany's naval policy was aimed at Britain
Treaty of San Stefano the Slavic states in the Balkans were freed of Ottoman rule, and Russia obtained territory and a large monetary indemnity; alarmed nearly every power in Europe
Russia Reinsurance Treaty in 1887 was between Germany and what power
William II came to the throne in Germany in 1888; he was twenty-nine, ambitious and impetuous; imperious by temperment and believed in divine right monarchy
William II filled with a sense of Germany's destiny as the leading power of Europe; a nephew of Queen Victoria of England
Bismarck "fired" by William II over a disagreement on "domestic policy"
Schlieffen Plan called for a huge German wheeling force that would cut through Belgium, slice into France and trap French forces; failed
First battle of the Marne crucial French victory which blunted the success of the Schlieffen Plan
First battle of the Marne Germans fall back, France is saved
Verdun Western Front beginning in February of 1916
Verdun for five months the Germans kept a continuous attack which cost them 500,000 dead and the French 600,000
Verdun the real purpose was that the Germans wanted to bleed the French in the "war of attrition"
Tannenburg Eastern Front
Tannenburg Germans drove Russian forces back from East Prussia
Tannenburg Germany took 100,000 prisoners and the Russian commander, Samsonov, committed suicide
Caporetto Italian front in late autumn 1917
Caporetto Germans and Austrians break through sending the Italians into retreat across the Venetian plains
Caporetto 300,000 Italians were killed or taken prisoner; eventually with British and French help, the Italians held at the Po River line
Battle of the Somme General Haig attempted to advance on a 15-mile front; British losses are 60,000 on the first day; ends with British losses at 607,000 and German losses between 4000,000 and 5000,000
Battle of the Somme first use of tanks by the British; little if any ground changes hands
Lusitania sinking of vessel in May 1915 caused the deaths of 118 Americans forcing a strong American protest
Lusitania partly responsible for a turn in American public opinion which many felt guaranteed war eventually against Germany
unrestricted submarine warfare German strategy attempted to use submarines to break the British blockade
unrestricted submarine warfare the sinking of ships-even of neutrals-without warning
unrestricted submarine warfare U.S. demanded that the Germans stop this-and they pledged-in the Sussex Pledge to do so; when they violated the Sussez Pledge by resuming this, the U.S. delcared war
Black Hand political terrorist organization- formally known as "Union or Death"; Gavrilo Princip was a member
Black Hand planned the assassination of the Archduke in Sarajevo because they were angry about Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Helmuth von Moltke responsible for the execution of the German plan to march through Belgium
Helmuth von Moltke nephew of Bismark's most effective general; added divisions to the left wing of the swinging door and even weakened the Russian front
Erich Ludendorff junior German officer at the time, under Hindenburg's command
Erich Ludendorff destroyed or captured an entire Russian army at the Battle of Tannenberg and defeated another one at the Masurian Lakes
Winston Churchill first lord of the British admiralty
Winston Churchill proposed to attack the Dardanelles and capture Constantinople; campaign failed miserably costing almost 150,000 causualties
Fourteen Points declared by President Wilson, stated America's war aims- they were idealistic primciples, including self-determination for nationalities; open diplomacy; freedom of the seas; disarmament; and the establishment of the League of Nations
mandates territories legally administered under the auspices of the League of Nations, but in effect were ruled as colonies
Kemal Ataturk "Father of the Turks"
Kemal Ataturk drove the Greeks out of Anatolia and compelled the victorious powers to make a new arrangment sealed by the treaty of Lausanne
Kemal Ataturk abolished the Ottoman sultanate and deposted the last caliph
reparations requirement incorporated into the Versailles Treaty that Germany should pay for the cost of the war
Economic Consequences of the Peace scathing attack on reparations and other economic aspects of the peace; written by John Maynard Keynes, British economist, it argued that the Treaty was immoral and unworkable
March Revolution as a result of bread riots and strikes, the Duma persuaded the Czar to abdicate, then formed a new provisional government
March Revolution the "first" revolution in Russia in 1917
Bolsheviks seized power in a coup in the "second" revolution of 1917
Leon Trotsky Lenin's chief collaborator
Leon Trotsky led the Petrograd Soviet and organized the coup that took place to oust the provisional government
April thesis developed by Lenin when he returned to Russia from Switzerland which called for all political power to go to the soviets; wanted to create an alliance among workers and peasants
Alexander Kerensky began as minister of justice, then became minister of war- finally becoming prime minister of the provisional government in the summer of 1917
Alexander Kerensky led the government which was ousted in the second revolution of 1917
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk harsh treaty that got Russia out of the war
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Germany and Russia- cost Russia 33% of its population, 80% of its iron, and 90% of its coal
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russia lost Poland, the Baltic states, and the Ukraine-and paid a large war indemnity
Reds and Whites civil war in Russia 1918-1921 was between these two forces
Created by: yanghong1213