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Final March 8

Flashcards for Final March 8, 2012

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine? Acetylcholinesterase
There are four major areas of the brain:the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and Cerebellum
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the Brain Stem
Excessive opioids (narcotics) depress the medulla oblongata and therefore cause Respiratory Depression
Endorphins are Natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being.
The Medulla Oblongata descends as the Spinal cord
The pituitary gland sits beneath the Hypothalamus
In which cerebral lobe is Broca's area located? Frontal
Which of the following is located within the subarachnoid space? Cerebrospinal fluid
Which of the following is the type of nervous tissue that conducts a nerve impulse? Neuron
What is the name of motor speech area located in the frontal lobe? Broca's area
Which structure is also called the "emotional brain?" Limbic system
Which structure is part of the diencephalon; it regulates the anterior pituitary gland, water balance, appetite, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system? Hypothalamus
Which structure plays a key role in personality development and emotional behavioral expression, and carries out the "executive" functions? Frontal lobe
Parkinson's disease Is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia
To achieve spinal anethesia, a -caine drug is injected into the subarchnoid space
The fifth cranial nerve, called the __________ nerve, is a mixed nerve that detects sensations from the scalp, face, and teeth. Trigeminal
The tenth cranial nerve, the __________ nerve, "wanders" outside the head area and innervates the heart and gastrointestinal systems. Vagus
Which of the following is most descriptive of the phrenic nerve? Motor nerve supplying the diaphragm
An antibiotic-induced ototoxicity damages which nerve? Vestibulocochlear nerve
Damage to the common peroneal nerve causes footdrop
A spinal cord injury at the level of C2 causes quadriplegia and an inability to breathe
A lumbar puncture is done by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space
The baroreceptor reflex controls blood pressure
Which reflex is concerned with the regulation of blood pressure? Baroreceptor
Which of the following is most characteristics of the parasympathetic nervous system? Feed-and-Breed system
The effects of adrenal medullary secretion most resemble sympathetic nerve discharge
An adrenergitic fiber is one that secretes norepinephrine as its transmitter
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervate the viscera
A drug that causes the heart to beat stronger and faster is called sympathomimetic
Alpha and beta receptors are activated by norepiinephrine
A beta1-adrenergic agonist increases heart rate
Muscarinic receptors are activated by ACh
A patient has vagally induced bradycardia (slow heart rate). Which of the following will relieve the bradycardia? Muscarinic antagonist
What is the name of the specialized area of a sensory neuron that detects a specific stimulus? Receptor
Photoreceptors detect light
A nociceptor detects pain
The colored part of the eye that contains the intrinsic eye muscles: the circular muscle and the radial muscles is known as (the) iris
Which cerebral lobe is concerned primarily with vision? Occipital
Which of the following structures secretes tears? Lacrimal gland
Which of the following structures is located outside of the eye? Conjunctiva
The sclera is the outer layer of the eyeball
A cataract is a cloudy lens
Which structure separates the outer ear from the middle ear? Tympanic membrane
Bone conduction occurs in the middle ear
Cerumen collects in the outer ear
The semicircular canals are concerned with balance
Which of the following is one of the special senses? Balance
Which of the following is concerned with the sense of smell? Olfaction
The eustachian tube connects the pharynx (throat) with which structure? Middle ear
Which type of tissue is found in organs that need to stretch (i.e., urinary bladder)? Transitional epithelium
Which type of cell conducts an action potential or electrical signal? Neuron
What is the most abundant of the four types of tissue? Connective tissue
Ligments, tendons, and cartilage are types of __________ tissue. connective
Which type of tissue is most likely to prevent a kidney from "floating?" Adipose tissue
Which of the following membranes form(s) the outer lining of the lungs? Visceral pleura
Which of the following is most related to a carcinoma and sarcoma? Cancer
Which type of membrane lines the ventral body cavities that are not open to the exterior of the body? Serous membrane
Which of the four major tissue types is able to regenerate and repair quickly when injured? Epithelial
Which of the following is true of an exocrine gland? Secretes its products to the outside or onto a surface
Osseous tissue is also called bone tissue.
The pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum are serous membranes.
Radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation are terms that are concerned with heat loss.
Hives are called urticaria.
What is the color of skin that is supplied by oxygen-poor blood? Cyanotic
Which of the following is associated with the conservation of heat? Blood vessels constrict
What is the effect of shivering? Increases heat production
Cyanosis refers to a bluish coloring of the skin caused by hypoxemia
The hypothalamus a. is the body's thermostat b. can be affected by pyrogens c. is involved in thermoregulation d. All of the above
The humerus is located in the arm.
Which of the following is most descriptive of the atlas and the axis? Vertebral
Which of the following word(s) is (are) related to the ribs? True, false, and floating
Which bone is described by the following: leg, shin, and medial malleolus? Tibia
Which bone is distal to the acetabulum and proximal to the patella? Femur
Which bone is distal to the femur and proximal to the tibia? Patella
Which of the following is located at the ends of a long bone? Epiphysis
Spongy or cancellous refers to a(n) soft bone.
Which structure is the site of attachment for tendons? Periosteum
Which structure refers to the shaft of a long bone? Diaphysis
Cervical, thoracic lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal refer to vertebrae.
At which joint do the humerous and ulna meet? Elbow
At which joint do the femur and tibia meet? Tibiofemoral
Injury to the epihyseal disc of the tibia may stunt the growth of the injured leg.
Which bone structure is most concerned with emopoiesis? Bone marrow
Which of the following refers to an exaggerated thoracic curvature of the spine (hunchback)? Kyphosis
Myelosuppression affects which structure? Bone marrow
Osteoclastic activity raises blood calcium levels
Which group of muscles is located on the posterior thigh? Hamstrings
The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius are the muscles of the quadriceps femoris
The brachialis and brachioradialis flex the forearm at the elbow.
Which muscle lies along the anterior surface of the humerus and acts synergistically with the brachialis and brachioradialis to flex the forearm at the elbow? Biceps brachii
What is the name of the cord of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone? Tendon
What is the site of calcium storage in a relaxed skeletal muscle? Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Acetylcholine is released from the prejunctional membrane in response to the nerve impulse.
Which of the following is responsible for muscle relaxation? Calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Which of the following describes a muscle that remains in a contracted stte? Tetany
Joey has had his leg in a non-weight-bearing cast for 8 weeks. When the cast is removed, the leg appears smaller than the uninjured leg. Which term best describes this observation? Disuse Atrophy
Which muscle separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and is also the chief breathing muscle? Diaphragm
On which large muscle do you sit? Gluteus maximus
Which type of muscle requires stimulation by a somatic motor neuron? Skeletal
Which of the following "slides" in the sliding filament hypothesis? Actin and myosin
Muscle relaxation occurs when calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
The somatic motor nerve that supples the muscles of the thigh has been severed; therefore, the person cannot walk
Which of the following is a higher order of organization? Organ
The head is located _________ to the chest. superior
The foot is located __________ to the leg. distal
The leg is __________ to the thigh. distal
The thigh is proximal __________ to the foot. proximal
The thoracic cavity is __________ to the abdominopelvic cavity. superior
which organ is located in the dorsal cavity? Brain
Which cavity is divided into quadrants? Abdominopelvic
Which of the following refers to the lower back region? Lumbar
Which of the following refers to the groin region? Inguinal
Which of the following refers to the area in front of the elbow? Antecubital
Which of the following is true of the dorsal cavity? It contains the brain and spinal cord.
The sternal area is the breastbone area
A patient has been in a car wreck and is admitted to the emergency department with a chief complaint of severe cervical pain accompanied by loss of sensation in all extremities. Which of the following indicates the site of pain? Neck
A patient was admitted to the emergency department and the physician recorded the patient's pain as being substernal, radiating to the left axillary region. Which of the following is a restatement of this description? The pain originates behind the breastbone and radiates to the left armpit area.
A patient with a history of gallbladder disease complains of midepigastric pain that radiates to the right subscapular region. What best describes the pain? High abdominal pain, radiating to below the right shoulder blade area
Which of the following is a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration of [H+}? pH
The sharing of electrons is referred to as covalent bonding.
A cation is a(n) positively charged ion.
Which of the following is true of an anion? An anion carries a negative charge.
NaCI, table salt, is called a(n) electrolyte.
Which process referes to the dissociation of NaCI into Na+ and CI-? Ionization
Which of the following represents bicarbonate, an anion that is important in acid-base regulation? HCO3-
Which compound is the universal solvent? Water
[H+] refers to hydrogen ion concentration.
Which compound is a waste product of cellular metabolism? Carbon dioxide
Which of the following increases the speed of a chemical reaction, but is itself not used up in the chemical reaction? A catalyst
What is the energy-transferring molecule? ATP
Which of the following is most descriptive of HCI? Is called bicarbonate
ATP is an energy transfer molecule
An electrolyte dissociates into ions.
A catalyst increases the speed of a chemical reaction
Which of the following is considered the control center of the cell? Nucleus
The mitochondrion is called the power plant of the cell because __________ within the mitochondrion. most of the ATP is produced
Which of the following is found on the rough endoplasmic retuclum? Ribosomes
What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that "pulls" water from an area where there is more water to an area where there is less water? Osmosis
What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that uses a pressure difference as its driving force? Filtration
What are the hairlike structures located on the outer surface of the cell membrane? Cilia
Lyosomes are filled with powerful enzymes that destroy cellular debris and pathogens.
Which of the following best describes the power or driving force for active transport? ATP
What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that uses a carrier molecule to move a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration? Facilitated diffusion
What is the name of the process in which an intracellular protein-containing vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and expels the protein to the outside of the cell? Exocytosis
Which process describes phagocytosis and pinocytosis? Endocytosis
Which word means "the bursting of red blood cells"? Hemolysis
If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution such as water, the cell will swell and burst
Which type of solution causes crenation or shrinkage of submerged red blood cells? Hypertonic
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are phases of mitosis.
Pinocytosis refers to cellular drinking.
Which of the following best describes normal saline? Isotonic
Which of the following best describes the eating of a bacterium by a lysosome? Phagocytosis
In which structure is most DNA found? Nucleus
Which of the following most accurately describes diffusion? Passive transport
Oxygen moves from the lungs (high concentration) into the blood (low concentration) in response to diffusion.
Which process describes the pushing of water cross the capillary (blood vessel) membrane? Filtration
Which structure is described as a semipermeable lipid bilayer? Cell membrane
The selectively permeable membrane determines which substances enter and leave the cell.
A child has experienced to a blow to the head causing a slow bleed. Although the bleeding has stopped, the blood clot continues to expand because the particles of the blood clot osmotically active and draw water into the clot.
Plasma proteins determine plasma oncotic (osmotic) pressure.
If plasma protein leaks into the tissue spaces, edema develops
Which of the following best describes a cell that is necrotic? Dead
A cervical Pap smear indicates well differentiated cells. You would interpret this statement as a normal cellular appearance.
Which of the following is a nitrogen-containing waste product? Urea
Which of the following is a waste product of glucose metabolism? CO2
Glucose is usally broken down to provide energy (ATP) for the working cells.
Which of the following are building blocks of protein? Amino acids
Glycogen is the storage of form of glucose
Which of the following is (are) produced by the rapid and incomplete breakdown of fatty acids? Acetone and ketoacids
Ketone body formation is most likely to cause acidosis.
Gluconeogenesis is a process that makes glucose from protein.
Gluconeogenesis increases blood glucose.
Which of the following is characteristic of urea? Nitrogen-containing waste formed in the liver
Which of the following is most descriptive of ammonia? Nitrogen-containing and brain-toxic
***Which cavity is divided into quadrants? Abdominopelvic
***Which region is included within the right upper quadrant (RUQ)? Right hypochondriac
***Which region is included within the left lower quadrant (LLQ)? Left iliac
***Which of the following refers to the lower back region? Lumbar
***Which of the following refers to the groin region? Inguinal
***Which of the following refers to the area in front of the elbow? Antecubital
***Which of the following is a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration [H=]? pH
***A cation is a(n) positively charged ion.
***NaCI, table salt, is called a(n) electrolyte
***Which of the following is an anion? HCO3-
***Which compound is the universal solvent? Water
***Which of the following is true of Na+? Called the sodium ion
***An electrolyte dissociates into ions.
***Which of the following is most descriptive of the function of an enzyme? Catalyst
***What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that "pulls" water from an area where there is more water to an area where there is less water? Osmosis
***What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that uses a pressure difference as its driving force? Filtration
***Lysosomes are filled with powerful enzymes that destroy cellular debris and pathogens.
***What is the transport mechanism in this description: a passive process that uses a carrier molecule to move a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration? Facilated diffusion
#19
Created by: Seksitisay