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endocrine

corbitt A&P

QuestionAnswer
endocrine glands are ductless
hormones = regulatory chemical substance, travels via blood) that regulate metabolic activity in the cells
target cells/target organs= tissue affected by hormone
What are two name for the pituitary gland master gland & hypophysis
define negative feedback mechanism main method of regulation
Growth hormones is secreted by anterior pituitary gland
anterior pituitary gland major effects are directed to the growth of the skeletal muscles and long bones of the body
anterior pituitary gland increases the rate of cell division
gigantism= excess growth hormone in children
acromegaly= excess growth hormone in adults
Prolactin is secreted by anterior pituitary gland
Prolactin stimulates and maintains the production of milk
ACHT functions during stress, and regulates the renal cortex
thyroid-stimulating hormones influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland
A deficiency of what leads to sterility FSH & LH
FSH & LH are secreted by anterior pituitary gland
What 2 hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland ADH & oxytocin
ADH= antidiuretic hormone
ADH conserves water
Which hormone functions with a positive feedback mechanism oxytocin
Another name for ADH is vasopressin , because of its effect on blood pressure
How does vasopressin (ADH) affect blood pressure increases blood pressure by causing constriction of the arterioles
Diabetes insipidus is due to a deficiency of ADH
Where is the thyroid gland located base of throat
What are the two major hormones of the thyroid gland thyroxine (T4) & triidothyronine (T3)
What is necessary for the synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triidothyronine (T3) Iodine
Goiter= thyroid enlargement often due to deficiency of iodine
Myxedema = hyposecretion of the thyroid gland
what are the s/s of Myxedema patient is sluggish, weight gain, dry hair and skin
Grave's disease= hyperthyroidism
what are the s/s of Grave's disease weight loss, agitated, irritable, Exophthalomos
Exophthalmos= bulging of the eyeballs
Where are the parathyroid glands located on the back of the thyroid glands
The parathyroid glands function in regulation of calcium
tetany= muscle spasms due to a decrease in calcium
Where are the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys
The adrenal cortex produces 3 major groups of steroid hormones known as corticosteroids
The hormones of the adrenal cortex are 'long term stressors' meaning they assist us through those everyday stresses
Mineralocorticoids= mainly aldosterone (conserves sodium)
Glucocorticoids= cortisone and cortisol
Cortisol has an antiflammatory effect
What are the main sex hormones estrogen and testosterone
Describe Addison's disease hyposcreation of all adrenal cortex hormones
s/s of Addison's disease skin turns bronze
Describe Cushing's syndrome hypersecreation of Glucocorticoids
s/s of Cushing's syndrome moonface, buffalo hump, facial hair, receding hair line
The adrenal medulla produces 2 similar hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and nonepinephrine (nonadrenaline). These assist with 'short term stressors", such as flight or fight
What properties does the pancreas have exocrine and endocrine
The pancreatic islets are also know as Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans have what properties endocrine. These 2 hormones are insulin and glucagon
How does insulin affect the blood sugar lowers blood sugar
How does glucagon affect blood sugar raises blood sugar
What is the normal range of blood sugar 70-110 mg/dl
Define diabetes mellitus increases in blood sugar levels
List the 3 p's diabetes polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
polyuria= excessive urine
polydipsia= excessive thirst
polyphagia= excessive hunger
FBS= fasting blood sugar
RBS= random blood sugar
PPBS= post-prandial blood sugar
GTT= Glucose tolerance test
IDDM- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Type I
NIDDM= non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Type II
Who are the only people who have gestational diabetes? pregnant women
The pineal gland is located in the brain
The pineal gland responds to light
The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin
The pineal gland affects our circadian rhythm
Where is the thymus gland located posterior to the sternum and upper thorax
What is large in infants but decrease as we age thymus gland
The thymus gland produces T cells (the cells affected by HIV)
The male gonads are the testes
The female gonads are the ovaries
menarche= 1st menstrual cycle
menopause= the stopping of the menstrual cycle
androgens= male sex hormone
Sexual development is influenced by the pituitary gland, gonads, and adrenal glands
A temporary endocrine gland is what the placenta; women will only have it when pregnant
hyperglycemia= increased blood sugar
hypoglycemia= decreased blood sugar
glycosuria= sugar in urine
Created by: jhowe2323