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A&P I Test 5

Heart and blood vessels

QuestionAnswer
Where is the heart located? It is located between the lungs in the mediastinum, which is mass of tissue that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and between the pleurae of the lungs, including heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and large blood vessels.
2 Where is the heart located? About two thirds of the heart’s mass lies to the left of the body’s midline.
What are the apex and the base of the heart? The apex is the lower, pointed end to the left, 5th intercostal space; and the base is the broader, upper portion.
What is the fibrous pericardium? outer fibrous pericardium which prevents overstretching of the heart, provides protection, and anchors the heart in the mediastinum.
What is the serous pericardium? deeper serous pericardium,which itself consists of two sublayers: a.outer parietal layer, which is fused to the fibrous pericardium b.inner visceral layer or epicardium
What is pericardial fluid and where is it located? inner visceral layer(epicardium):between these two sublayers(outer fibrous pericardium & deeper serous pericardium) is the pericardial cavity that contains pericardial fluid, a lubricating fluid that reduces friction between the layers as the heart moves.
Define the 3 layers of the heart wall outer epicardium thick, middle myocardium inner endocardium
outer epicardium composed of mesothelium and connective tissue
thick, middle myocardium composed of cardiac muscle tissue
inner endocardium composed of connective tissue covered by endothelium that is continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels
Is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium also called epicardium? YES, inner visceral layer of serous pericardium is also called epicardium
What is the external feature that is located between atria and ventricles? coronary sulcus
What is the external feature that is located between two ventricles? anterior interventricular sulcus posterior interventricular sulcus
What blood vessels deliver blood to the right atrium? superior vena cava (SVC) inferior vena cava (IVC) coronary sinus
Study the internal structures of each chamber of the heart: fossa ovalis, opening of coronary sinus, chordate tendineae, papillary muscles, etc
fossa ovalis- located in right atrium The interior of the heart has an interatrial septum that separates the atria; this septum has an oval depression called the fossa ovalis
pectinate muscles is The anterior right atrial wall has internal muscular ridges
Blood in the right atrium flows into the right ventricle through the ? tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve)
Right ventricle: The inner surface of the right ventricle has an irregular surface of ridges called? trabeculae carneae
ensure that the cusps of the tricuspid valve permit blood to flow into the right ventricle but prevent backflow of blood into the right atrium? chordae tendineae and their associated papillary muscles
separates the two ventricles? interventricular septum
The right ventricle pumps blood through the ____ into the _____ which divides into the _______and______. pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, right and left pulmonary arteries
Left atrium: Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs via four _______ that empty into the left atrium; there are two pulmonary veins (one superior and one inferior) draining blood from each lung. pulmonary veins
Blood in the left atrium flows into the left ventricle through the ________. bicuspid (mitral) valve (or left atrioventricular valve)
Left ventricle: The left ventricle forms the apex of the heart.
The inner surface of the left ventricle has an irregular surface of ridges called_____ trabeculae carneae
ensure that the cusps of the bicuspid valve permit blood to flow into the left ventricle but prevent backflow of blood into the left atrium? chordae tendineae and their associated papillary muscles
The left ventricle pumps blood through the ? aortic valve into the ascending aorta
The ascending aorta gives rise to the _____and____ which deliver blood to the walls of the heart. right and left coronary arteries
The ascending aorta is continudous with the ________, which is followed by the ______ (which consists of the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta). arch of the aorta, descending aorta
Branches of the aorta deliver blood throughout the ? systemic circulation
During fetal life the temporary _______ shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta; shortly after birth this blood vessel normally closes, leaving a remnant called the _______ ductus arteriosus, ligamentum arteriosum
Rigth atrium: receives deoxygenated blood from three veins: superior vena cava (SVC),inferior vena cava (IVC), coronary sinus
superior vena cava (SVC) brings blood from most parts of the body superior to the heart
inferior vena cava (IVC) brings blood from all parts of the body inferior to the diaphragm
coronary sinus receives blood from most of the vessels draining the wall of the heart
opening of coronary sinus
There are four sets of valves in the heart: tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid (mitral), and aortic semilunar
What is the correct order in which blood flows through these valves, starting in the right atrium? tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid (mitral), and aortic semilunar
9. What are the functions of these valves?
tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve). Blood in the right atrium flows into the right ventricle through the
pulmonary semilunar valve The right ventricle pumps blood through the _____into the pulmonary trunk which divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries
bicuspid (mitral) Blood in the left atrium flows into the left ventricle through the
aortic semilunar The left ventricle pumps blood through the _____into the ascending aorta.
which valve prevents backflow of blood into left ventricle? aortic semilunar valve
Which valve prevents backflow of blood into right atrium? tricuspid
which valve prevents backflow of blood into right ventricle? pulmonary semilunar
which valve prevents backflow of blood into left atrium? bicuspid (mitral) valve
the _____ of the heart is associated with the deoxygenated blood while ______ is with the oxygenated blood right side of the heart,left heart
____ carry the blood away from the heart while _______carry the blood back to the heart. Arteries, veins
what vessels carry deoxygenated blood to the heart? superior vena cava (SVC) inferior vena cava (IVC)
What vessels carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart? left and right pulmonary artery
What vessels carry oxygenated blood toward the heart? pulmonary veins
What vessel carries oxygenated blood to the body? aorta (systemic aorta), ascending aorta
What valves are associated with deoxygenated blood? tricuspid valve, pulmonary semilunar
the oxygenated blood? bicuspid (mitral), aortic semilunar
What are the branches of the left coronary artery? the left coronary artery divides into: a. anterior interventricular branch or left anterior descending (LAD) artery b. circumflex branch
And right coronary artery? the right coronary artery divides into: a. posterior interventricular branch b. marginal branch
What is a vascular sinus, such as the coronary sinus? A vascular (venous) sinus is a vein with a thin endothelial wall that has no smooth muscle to alter its diameter, contains large blood flow (e.g., coronary sinus).
Which chamber of the heart has the thickest wall? left ventricle
What are the first paired vessels to branch from the aorta? Right and left coronary arteries
What structure drains the great and middle cardiac veins? coronary sinus
Which is the heart’s natural pacemaker? sinoatrial (SA) node
What is the correct order as the conduction system of the heart: Sinoatrial (SA) node (in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the opening of the superior vena cava) -> atrioventricular node (AV) node (in the interatrial septum) ->
2. What is the correct order as the conduction system of the heart: atrioventricular (AV) bundle/ bundle of His -> right and left bundle branches -> Purkinjie fibers
What vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the walls of large blood vessels? vasa vasorum
The walls of blood vessels consist of three major layers: tunica interna, tunica media, and tunica externa
tunica interna inner tunica interna (intima) which consists of: a. endothelium b. basement membrane c. internal elastic lamina
tunica media middle (thickest) tunica media which consists of: a. elastic fibers which provide compliance (i.e., distensibility) b. smooth muscle fibers
tunica externa outer tunica externa which consists of: a. primarily elastic and collagen fibers b. a less prominent external elastic lamina that contains the vasa vasorum in larger blood vessels
3. What arteries function as a pressure reservoir? large elastic(conducting) arteries
And as distributing arteries? medium-sized muscular (distributing) arteries
Vasoconstriction occurs when vascular smooth muscle tissue contracts to decrease the diameter of the lumen.
Vasodilation occurs when vascular smooth muscle tissue relaxes to increase the diameter of the lumen.
4. What are the functions of arterioles? Through vasoconstriction and vasodilation arterioles play major roles in: i. regulating blood flow from arteries to capillaries ii. regulating blood pressure
What vessels are known as resistance vessels? Arterioles are known as resistance vessels.
____is a very small branch of an artery that delivers blood to a capillary An arteriole
The terminal end of an arteriole is a region called the ______; at its junction with a capillary is a ______. metarteriole, precapillary sphincter
5. What vessels permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids? capillaries
6. What regulates the blood flow through a capillary? precapillary sphincter
7. Name 3 types of capillaries. continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, sinusoids=tortuous capillaries
continuous capillaries most common type ex. in skin, muscle have endothelial cells
continuous capillaries Many capillaries are continuous capillaries in which the plasma membranes of the endothelial cells form a continuous tube that is interrupted only by intercellular clefts.
fenestrated capillaries pore=holes. ex in glomerulus, kidney
fenestrated capillaries Other capillaries are fenestrated capillaries in which there are fenestrations (pores) between the neighboring plasma membranes.
sinusoids=tortuous capillaries In some organs, there are sinusoids which are wider, more tortuous capillaries whose walls contain large pores and intercellular clefts; sinusoids may contain specialized lining cells (e.g., phagocytic cells in liver sinusoids).
8. Compare and contrast between arteries and veins.
arteries 1. Vasoconstriction occurs when vascular smooth muscle tissue contracts to decrease the diameter of the lumen. 2. Vasodilation occurs when vascular smooth muscle tissue relaxes to increase the diameter of the lumen.
arteries arteries3. There are two major sets of arteries:
arteries large elastic (conducting) arteries whose elastic fibers, organized to form the elastic lamellae, recoil during relaxation of the heart to force blood to flow onward; these blood vessels act as pressure reservoirs
arteries ii. medium-sized muscular (distributing) arteries whose smooth muscle tissue is capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to regulate the rate of blood flow to target tissues; vascular tone stiffens the vessel wall
arteries thicker wall tunica media is big sustain high blood pressure has external/internal lamina don't have valves
veins thinner wall tunica interna and tunica media are small tunica externa is big lot more blood flow don't have external/internal lamina has valves: for high pressure to low pressure
have relatively thin walls because the tunica interna and tunica media are thin layers? veins
Many veins, especially those in the limbs, have valves which are composed of two or more thin folds of tunica interna that form flap-like cusps which project into the lumen.
function to prevent backflow of blood and aid in moving blood toward the heart vein valves
vascular (venous) sinus is a vein with a thin endothelial wall that has no smooth muscle to alter its diameter (e.g., coronary sinus).
Superficial veins travel through the hypodermis
deep veins travel below the fascia between skeletal muscles.
anastomosis is The union of branches of two or more arteries supplying the same body region
anastomoses provide alternative routes i.e., collateral circulation, for blood to reach a target tissue or organ (anastomoses may also occur between veins and between arterioles and venules).
end arteries are Arteries that do not anastomose. occlusion of an end artery interrupts the blood supply to the target tissue and may result in necrosis of that tissue
10. The largest portion of blood is located in which type of vessels at rest? systemic veins & venules
The Fetal Circulation The lungs and GI organs do not begin to function until birth. The exchange of materials between fetal and maternal circulation occurs through the placenta.
In fetal circulation, how does the most of the blood by-passes the lung, and joints the systemic circulation? (foramen ovale, ductus anteriosus)
Scheme of fetal circulation. p.541 - Blood passes from the fetus to the placenta via two umbilical arteries (deoxygenated blood)
2. Scheme of fetal circulation - The oxygenated blood returns from the placenta via a single umbilical vein
3. Scheme of fetal circulation - Some blood enter liver; some into ductus venosus -> inferior vena cava -> right atrium
4. Scheme of fetal circulation - From the right atrium, most of the blood via foramen ovale to left atrium (bypass the lung), little goes to pulmonary trunk
5. Scheme of fetal circulation - From the pulmonary trunk, most blood via ductus arteriosus to aorta (bypass the lung), little of the blood -> lungs -> -> left atrium -> aorta -> systems.
Prenatal:p.540 Umbilical vein (1) becomes Postnatal Ligamentum teres
Prenatal: Umbilical arteries (2) Postnatal Medial umbilical ligaments
Prenatal: Ductus venosus Postnatal Ligamentum venosum
Prenatal: Foramen ovale Postnatal Fossa ovalis
Prenatal: Ductus arteriosus Postnatal ligamentum arteriosum
Created by: nely.nieto