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Urinary Syst. Ch. 17

Functions of the kidneys include? 1. Removal of nitrogenous waste from blood 2. Maintain blood volume and electrolyte balance. 3. Maintain pH balance of blood 4. Production of renin (regulate BP) 5. Production of erythropoietin (RBC formation) 6. Conversion of Vit D into Calciferol
Nitrogenous wastes include? 1. Urea 2. Uric Acid 3. Creatinine 4. Ammonia(NH3)
Name the 7 electrolytes? 1. Sodium 2. Potassium 3. Chloride 4. Calcium 5. Phosphate 6. Magnesium 7. Sulfate
How much sodium do healthy adults need to take in daily? 2300 mg
How do the kidneys maintain pH balance in the blood? By the interaction of carbonic acid and bicarbonate
What does renin do? Regulates BP
What is the role of erythropoietin? Aids in erythrocyte (RBC) formation
What is Calciferol? Active form of Vitamin D
Where are the kidneys located? Retroperitoneal(flank)region
Why is the right kidney slightly lower than the left kidney? Due to the large area occupied by the liver
The kidney is the size of what? A fist
The name of the outer covering of each kidney is? Renal Capsule
The outermost layer of the kidney is called? Renal Cortex
The Renal Medulla is? The middle layer of the kidney
What is Renal Fascia? Thin layer of fibrous connective tissue that anchors each kidney to surrounding structures and the abdominal wall
The connective tissue that binds muscles and organs is known as? Fascia
What are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder known as? Ureters
Where does each ureter connect to the kidney? Renal Pelvis
The calices (calyx) are what? Funnel shaped structures that make up the renal pelvis
What are nephrons? Kidney cells
Approximately how many nephrons does each kidney have? 1,000,000
The blood vessels which carry oxygenated blood to be filtered by the kidneys are called? Right and Left Renal Arteries
The blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys are known as? Right and Left Renal Veins
Approximately how much blood passes through the kidneys each minute? 1200 mL
What is urine? Fluid that the kidneys ultimately eliminate from the body
Normal urine holds what characteristics? 1. Clear or Yellow 2. Clean (free from pathogens)
A routine lab test performed on urine is called? Urinalysis
What is the rate of normal urine production? 56 mL/hour
How is urine transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder? Peristalsis
What is the urinary bladder? A hollow muscular organ located posterior to the pubic symphysis
What is the pubic symphysis? The interpubic joint of the pelvis
What is the average capacity of the urinary bladder? 700-800 mL
Stretch receptors in the bladder wall will transmit nerve impulses to the lower portion of the spinal cord when the urine reaches what level? 200-400 mL
The nerve impulses which tell you the urinary bladder is getting full initiates the conscious desire to? Urinate(micturition) or Void(micturate)
What are the internal and external urinary(urethral) sphincters? The sphincters which control the flow of urine
The inability to control the urinary(urethral) sphincters is called? Enuresis or Urinary Incontinence
What is the Urethra? The tube(vessel)that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of your body
The opening of the urethra to the outside of your body is known as? Meatus(orifice or os)
How long is the urethra in females? Approximately 1.5 inches long
Where is the urinary meatus located in females? Between the clitoris and vaginal orifice
In males, the urethra is approximately how long? 8 inches long
Where is the urinary meatus located in males? The distal portion of the glans penis
In males, the urethra carries which 3 things? 1. Urine 2. Spermatozoa 3. Semen
What is another name for the reproductive and urinary systems? Genitourinary (GU) System
Name the 3 blood tests commonly used to detect Nitrogenous waste? 1. BUN(blood urea nitrogen) 2. Creatinine clearance(Cc) 3. Cystatin C(Cys C)
IVP is the abbreviation for what diagnostic test? Intravenous pyelogram
What is an IVP? X-ray of the renal pelves after injection of an IV radiopaque dye
What is the name for a condition of blood in the urine? Hematuria
What is Pyuria? A condition of pus in the urine
What is the name for a conditon of bacteria in the urine(infection)? Bacteriuria
What is glycosuria? A conditon of sugar(glucose)in the urine(DM)
What is known as a condition of Ketones(acetone) in the urine(fat metabolism)? Ketonuria
What is Albuminuria? A condition of albumin(blood protein)in the urine
What is the process called which artificially removes toxins from the blood? Hemodialysis(HD)
Specifically, what purpose does hemodialysis serve? Removes nitrogenous waste and excess electrolytes from the blood because the kidneys are unable to do so
How often is hemodialysis performed? Commonly 3 times a week for around 4 hrs per treatment
Describe Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis(CAPD)? A diffusate(hypotonic solution)is placed into the peritoneal(abdominal)cavity through a surgically placed catheter and filtered throughought the abdominal cavity to pull out the toxins for removal/drainage
CAPD is performed how frequently? 4 times a day for around 30mins per treatment
What is the chemical abbreviation for ammonia? NH3
Identify the electrolyte with the chemical abbreviation Na? Sodium
What is the chemical abbreviation that indicates Potassium? K
Name the electrolyte represented by Cl? Chloride
What chemical abbreviation signifies Calcium? Ca
What is PO4? Phosphate
The symbol Mg stands for? Magnesium
What is the symbol for Sulfate? SO4
What is H2CO3? Carbonic acid
What is HCO3? Bicarbonate
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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