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Liz Blood Lecture

AP2 ST120 Lecture over the blood

Blood Viscous transport medium that is carried away from the heart by arteries and back to the heart by veins
Color of blood when it's oxygenated Bright red
Color of blood when its deoxygenated Dark red
Functions of blood Suppply O2 to body, Removal CO2, Temp regulation, Water balance, Transport nutrients, Removal of wastes, Wound healing
Blood is made of two parts Cells and Plasma
Cellular elements of blood RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets (aka Thrombocytes)
Erythrocytes RBCs. Transport O2 from the lungs to the tissues, Transport CO2
Leukocytes WBCs. Protects the body against infection and ds
Thrombocytes Platelets. Important for blood coagulation, Necessary for controlling hemorrhaging
Plasma Straw colored fld part of blood. 60% of total blood. Made of 92% water and rest P
Proteins in Plasma Albumin, Fibrinogen, Alpha/Beta/Gamma Globulins
Nonproteins Nitrogens (NPNs) in Plasma Urea, Uric acid, Creatine, Creatinine, Ammonium salts, and Amino Acids
Organic substances in Plasma Glucose, Lipids, Enzymes, Amino Acids, Cholesterol, Hormones, & Clotting Factors in organic chemicals
Major gases in Plasma O2 and CO2
Two main types of Leucocytes Granular and Nongranular
Three types of Granular Leucocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
Neutrophils Ingest and destroy bacteria through phagocytosis
Eosinophils Become active in the presence of allergies and certain infections. Use phagocytosis
Basophils Secrete heparin (an anticoagulant) and histamine (an inflammation stimulant and vasodilator) in R/T chronic inflammation and d healing from an infection
Two kinds of nongranular leukocytes Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Monocytes Use phagocytosis to ingest foreign substances to help prevent infection
Normal blood count for platelets 250k - 450k per cubic mm of blood
How do Thrombocytes work When a BV is damaged, platelets flow over the torn edges which stimulates the platelets to disintegrate and release various clotting agents that lead to formation of Thromboplastin, which causes coagulation.
How do Platelets inhibit additional blood loss from a damaged BV Platelets also release a substance that causes vasoconstriction to decrease the amt of blood that flows through the area
Where do blood cells originate from Pluripotent cells - stems cells in Red Bone Marrow
Two types of stems cells from Pluripotent cells Lymphoid and Myeloid
Agglutinogen Blood protein chemical molecule markers on the surface of the RBC
Agglutinin Antibody. Protein present in blood Plasma. These antibodies are the opposite of what blood type the person is. Ex. Prsn with Type A blood has B antibodies.
Type O blood contains what antibodies Both A and B Antibodies. That's why it's the Universal Donor
Type AB blood contains what antibodies Contains no antibodies. That's why it's the Universal Recipient
Rh factor A protein originally found in a Rhesus monkey
Rh+ Presence of the protein in the blood, meaning there is a positive factor
Rh- No present of the protein in the blood, meaning there are no factors
Why is it important for a pregnant woman to know if she's Rh+ or Rh- Bc if she is Rh- and the baby is Rh+, her body could react to the protein and make antibodies that attack the baby's blood, causing anemia and possibly fetal death
If the mom is Rh- how can the baby be Rh+ Inherited it from the dad
If the mom is Rh+ and the baby is Rh- There will be no problem, since the body mounts an immune response only if it detects a "foreign" factor. The Rh- negative baby has no factors to trigger the mother's antibody response.
Hemostasis Arrest of blood that escapes from a BV by either natural or artificial means
Artificial Hemostasis In surgery, through the use of hemostatic agents or suture ligatures and use of thermal cautery or laser
Natural Hemostasis depends on Certain mechanisms and on the ability of the blood to clot
Whole blood transfusion Pt has lost a lg amt of blood
Components of Whole Blood RBC, WBCs, Platelets, Immunoglobulins, Fresh frozen plasma
Reason why RBCs are used in whole-blood transfusions Restoration of blood's ability to transport O2
Reason why WBCs are used in whole-blood transfusions Restore WBCs lost in infections
Reason why Platelets are used in whole-blood transfusions Pts with blood-clotting disorders
Reason why Immunoglobulins are used in whole-blood transfusions To build immunity when antibody levels are low
Reason why Fresh Frozen Plasma is used in whole-blood transfusions To help with blood clotting, often transfused in pts with liver fx
Analogous transfusion Pt donates their own blood for their blood transfusion during procedures
Blood salvage AKA Intraoperative Blood Collection Used d an operation that is expected to involve lg blood loss. The team recovers the pt's blood and reinfuses it d surgery
Two methods of Blood Salvaging Washed and Unwashed methods
Washed Method Using a high-speed centrifuge to separate the blood into its components. It takes the RBCs and washes them in saline solution, pumps it into an infusion bag to return back to pt
Unwashed Method Doesn't use a centrifuge. Collects blood into a filtering reservoir. After filtering, unwashed blood is transferred into a bag to return back to pt
Hemorrhagic Anemia Hemorrhage C/B trauma or internal bleeding which results in anemia
Aplastic Anemia Lack of production of RBCs
Pernicious Anemia C/B lack of intrinsic factor secreted by the stomach. The intrinsic factor is important for Vit B12 absorption in the small intestines.
Polycythemia Clonal stem cell disorder that results in the abnormal increase in the number of circulating RBCs (I.E. too many RBCs makes the blood thick)
Created by: elizabeth-mcw



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