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History Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Phoenicians semetic group (current day Arabic) lived in Near East (Jordan, Turkey), Romans called them Punici, the latin word for Phoenicians, where word Punic Wars comes from
What are the three prehistoric time periods? Stone Age, (Copper Age- only found in certain parts of world), Bronze Age, and Iron Age
What three periods is the Stone Age broken up into? Paleolithic (Lower, Middle, Upper), Mesolithic, and Neotlithic
Describe the Lower Paleolithic. Atapuerca = Homo antecessor = cannibalism
Describe the Middle Paleolithic. Beginning of cooking, trade, art, and religion
Describe the Upper Paleolithic (5) Behaviorally modern humans (Cro-Magnon), Altamira = Homo sapiens sapiens = cave art, trading, religion = venus, Magdelanian culture: made tools out of stone- javelins, needles, harpoons
Describe the Mesolithic period. micro-Lithization of tools, ventured outside of caves = open air art
Describe the Neolithic period. agricultural, domestic, & sedentary lifestyles, first cities, architecture, ceramics, Megalithic structures = Menhir, dolmen, appearance of metal marks the end of the Neolithic
Describe the Copper Age. Pan-European known as Bell Beakers b/c they made ceramics shaped like bells, people known as Los Millares, pre-urban society living in one building for all needs (buried dead, granary, animals), dolmens were separate
Describe the Bronze Age. El Argar developed from Los Millares, urban society that had separate buildings for different uses, called Argaric buildings, most important culture to IP
Tartessos Sometimes thought of as lost city of Atlantis, mined copper, silver, and gold, everything we know about them comes from Greeks/Romans, unknown origin and reason for disappearance
Iberians native group in IP, name means "land of many bunnies" given by Greeks, evidence as early as 6th century BC, lived in semi-isolated communities but knew about each other, during 1st Punic War up until the 2nd were under Carthaginian control
What are the two Greek cities in IP? Ampurias and Saguntum
What happened in the 1st Punic War? 242 BC Carthage and Rome fight for control over Sicily, war of stalemate and politics, so Rome creates Ebro Treaty, which Hamilcar Barca signs stating Rome gets Sicily Carthage can't trade there, but they can have the IP south of the Ebro River.
What happened in the 2nd Punic War? Hannibal Barca wants revenge against Rome after being ridiculed his whole life because of his father's decision w/ the Ebro Treaty. So Hannibal attacks Saguntum, Rome comes to Greeks aid while Hannibal sneak attacks Rome from behind.
Battle of Ilipa 206 BC Rome sends Scipio Africanus the Elder to attack Carthage's supplies in IP, Mago Barca is killed and Rome wins battle, taking over control of IP
3 Consequences of Battle of Ilipia 1) Carthage no longer has power in IP 2) Rome has first settlement in IP named Italica 3) Iberians are now mostly controlled by Romans
Numantia Iberians in Numantia resist Romanization until 133 BC when Rome sends Scipio Africanus the Young who defeats the Numantians and now all of Iberians in IP are under Roman control
Romanization Process: steps 1 and 2 1) Starts w/ Ebro Treaty, ends with Battle of Ilipia 2) Fighting w/ Natives, Iberians help Romans fight Lusitanians then turn on Iberians and pacify them
Romanization Process: steps 3 and 4 3) Roman Civil War, fully romanizes IP Pompey overthrows Sertorious then Caesar overthrows Pompey 4) Cantabrians War, last native group that is defeated by Rome, which completes the Romanization process of IP
Octavious adopted son of JC, inherits 1) desire for power 2) support of people, becomes Augustus and first Roman Emperor, instills Pax Romana
Hispania is a main source of WHAT for Rome? Food: grains and olive oil, evidence from Mount Testaccio w/ pile of broken ceramics
4 Roman Emperors born in Hispania Trajan, Hadrian, Theodosious I, and Arcadious
What did Rome give to Hispania? Cities and infrastructure (roads), language, art, culture, society, law (Roman law)
Decline and Trasformation of Rome 1. Diocletian (P) 2. Constantine (c) 3. Julian (P) 4. Theodosious I (c)
Germanic Tribes arrived in IP in early 5th century AD, Vandals, Suevi, and Alans
How do Visigoths get there king? electoral process in the aristocracy
What happens with the Visigoths in 410 AD? They sack Eastern Roman Empire under Alaric I. After his death, Ataulf (known as first Spanish Visigothic king) moves westward into Hispania, made an informal agreement w/ Rome to conquer Germanic tribes, but dies b4 so Walia makes official agreement
What does King Theodoric I do? He breaks agreement with Rome and conquers Hispania himself, succeeded by his son Euric (peaceful transition), considered most successful Visigothic king creates Codes of Euric. After his death, King Theudis is confined to Hispania by Frank King Clovis
What is the Justinian Conquest? successful attempt by Byzantine Empire to reconquer lost lands of W. Roman Empire: S. Spain, N. Africa, and S. Italy and islands in between
King Leovigildo considered one of greatest Visigothic kings, revises Code of Euric (codex revisus), 2 sons convert to Trinitarian, beginning of division of Hispania into duchys and counties, changes electoral process to hereditary monarchy
King Recaredo I son of Leovigildo, first Catholic Visigothic king, has good diplomatic relations with Franks and Burgundy, succeeded by son Lluiva II who sends troops to attack Byzantine empire to the south, killed by Witerica where civil war ensues until 711AD
King Recevinto I maintains peace through power struggle, creates Fuero Juzgo, which is still used today
Octavious adopted son of JC, inherits 1) desire for power 2) support of people, becomes Augustus and first Roman Emperor, instills Pax Romana
Hispania is a main source of WHAT for Rome? Food: grains and olive oil, evidence from Mount Testaccio w/ pile of broken ceramics
4 Roman Emperors born in Hispania Trajan, Hadrian, Theodosious I, and Arcadious
What did Rome give to Hispania? Cities and infrastructure (roads), language, art, culture, society, law (Roman law)
Decline and Trasformation of Rome 1. Diocletian (P) 2. Constantine (c) 3. Julian (P) 4. Theodosious I (c)
Germanic Tribes arrived in IP in early 5th century AD, Vandals, Suevi, and Alans
How do Visigoths get there king? electoral process in the aristocracy
What happens with the Visigoths in 410 AD? They sack Eastern Roman Empire under Alaric I. After his death, Ataulf (known as first Spanish Visigothic king) moves westward into Hispania, made an informal agreement w/ Rome to conquer Germanic tribes, but dies b4 so Walia makes official agreement
What does King Theodoric I do? He breaks agreement with Rome and conquers Hispania himself, succeeded by his son Euric (peaceful transition), considered most successful Visigothic king creates Codes of Euric. After his death, King Theudis is confined to Hispania by Frank King Clovis
What is the Justinian Conquest? successful attempt by Byzantine Empire to reconquer lost lands of W. Roman Empire: S. Spain, N. Africa, and S. Italy and islands in between
King Leovigildo considered one of greatest Visigothic kings, revises Code of Euric (codex revisus), 2 sons convert to Trinitarian, beginning of division of Hispania into duchys and counties, changes electoral process to hereditary monarchy
King Recaredo I son of Leovigildo, first Catholic Visigothic king, has good diplomatic relations with Franks and Burgundy, succeeded by son Lluiva II who sends troops to attack Byzantine empire to the south, killed by Witerica where civil war ensues until 711AD
King Recevinto I maintains peace through power struggle, creates Fuero Juzgo, which is still used today
710 AD King Witiza dies, possibly killed by Rodrigo. Three people claim ownership of thrown: King Rodrigo who is duke of S. Spain, Agila II who is Witiza's son and rules over N+W Spain, and Oppa, a Sevillan bishop who dislikes the other two
711 AD Muslims invade IP, kill Rodrigo in Battle of Guadalete which marks end of the Visigoths, in Battle of Covadonga Duke Favila/Pelayo defeat Muslims for control of Asturias, which marks first battle of the Christian reconquest
B. Poiters and Charlemagne Muslims are stopped in Frank territory in B. Poiters by Charles Martel & Christians, they remain in al-Andalus while Charlemagne creates buffer zone HM made of multiple counties to protect against future Muslim invasions
Charlemagne known as Father of Europe and becomes 1st Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD Christmas day
Mozarabs and Andalusí M= Christians living under Muslim rule (Count Teodomiro and Treaty of Tudmir) A= Christians who converted to Islam
Caliphate of Omeya Family until 756AD when Abasí family kills every Omeya except Abderraman I who escapes to Cordoba and finds the first Independent Emirate
Kingdom of Asturias Duke Pelayo and Pedro's children marry, Pedro's son Alfonso I expands east toward Galicia and Leon and west to create buffer county of Castile, his son Alfonso II creates Pilgrimage to Saint James & repopulates Galicia, Leon, and Castile
Alfonso III of Asturias expands south towards Duero River while Abderraman III deals w/ Banu Qasi revolt, divides land between 3 sons- Galicia, Leon, & Asturias, sons fight over control of Kingdom
Hispanic March 810 AD- Iñigo Iñiquez Arista becomes first king of Pamplona by making it a kingdom, 1035 AD- King Sancho Garces III El Mayor "europeanizes" his 3 kingdoms, divides them amongst his 3 sons: Sancho IV gets Pamplona conquers S & renames is Navarra
Ramiro I and Fernando Ramiro I gets Aragon & declares its independence so he becomes king of Kingdom of Aragon, Fernando gets County of Castile but marries the sister of the King of Leon so Fernando kills him and becomes King of Leon and Count of Castile
Caliphate of Cordoba 929-1031: Abderraman III becomes first Caliph, after he dies his son Alhaken II becomes 'judge of the christians' of Alfonso III of Asturias sons to decide which one to help, when he dies his son Hisham II is too young so Almanzor takes over for him
Almanzor Dictator of al-Andalus,invades N Christian Spain every spring, rules for Hisham II until he dies, then Hisham takes over for three years then Almanzors son however by then the Caliphate breaks up into Taifas
Taifas 30 independent kingdoms, no diplomatic relations, don't speak to each other, military rivalries, conquer each other, lack armies so employ Christian mercenaries, must pay parias to Christians
3 Reasons for Importance of Parias 1) made Christians wealthy 2) supported a bigger military 3) brought wealth to the church: specifically Cluny Abbey in Cluny, Burgundy, France
1085 AD Toledo buffer zone is reconquered by the Christians under King Alfonso VI, Almutamid poet & leader of Sevillan Taifa panics & asks for help from Moroccan fundamentalist group Almoravids who come and take over Muslim Spain instead of helping
Almoravids and End of al-Andalus Almoravids stop paying the parias so Pope Urban II sends a crusade against them, they ask for help from Almohads who come but only control what is now Andalusia
Battle de Las Navas de Tolosa 1212 AD all of Christian Spain unites against the Almohads and defeats them, signifying the end of Muslim Spain
1236-1248 AD King Fernando III-San Fernando very pious man, conquers Jaen, Cordoba, and Sevilla in 1236 w/ help from Nasrid Granada under an agreement & the Christian reconquest is complete in 1248 AD, king to finally unite Castile and Leon
Europeanization of the IP Pop Urban II & the Crusades, Burgundians come to Spain to help in reconquest, Castile reconquers Toledo under Alfonso VI & he marries his two daughters to Burdundians Raymond who gets County of Leon and Henry who gets County of Portugal
Burgundy brothers After Alfonso VI dies, Raymond becomes King of Castile & goes to war w/ his brother for control of Portugal, however Henry's song Alfonso I declares Portugal's independence & is king, his cousin Raymonds son Alfonso VII is King of Castile
Jaime I, the Conquistador grandson of Alfonso II of Aragon, expands kingdom to the east b/c they can no longer have control over French kingdoms, towards Italy
1264 AD Mudejar Revolt happens w/ Muslims attacking Christian Spain, help from Granada, which breaks the agreement, Christian reconquest won't end until 1492 because they will be fighting 2 civil wars
After Alfonso X Goes to civil war w/ son Sancho IV. Sancho's son Alfonso XI is most powerful monarch w/ regnal power but dies so leaves kingdom of Castile to son Pedro I & gives bastard son Enrique II county of Trastamara
1st Castilian Civil War Aristocracy wants more power & less for regnal monarch so chooses Enrique as leader against his brother so war begins becomes part of 100 years war between France & England, England supports Pedro b/c his daughter marries John Lancaster.
End of 1st Castilian Civil War Enrique kills Pedro for throne & France wins 100 years war. Enrique has a son Juan I who marries Leonor of Aragon. They have two sons Enrique III & Fernando de Antequera.
Treaty of Bayone 1388 AD Creates peace between castile & England & legitimizes the Trastamara dynasty through the marriage of Enrique III and Catherine of Lancaster b/c she is the last descendent of the Burgundy dynasty so it unites both.
Juan II Enrique dies leaving power to son Juan II, but is too young so is ruled by mother Catherine who dies then Uncle Fernando de Antequera. Juan II's great uncle Martin I of Aragon dies so two people can succeed to the thrown: Juan II or his uncle Fernando
Compromise of Caspe in the compromise, the aristocracy of Aragon decides that Fernando will be king of Aragon, so now the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon are both under the Trastamara dynasty
Juan II's children Juan II has two marriages, son from first is Enrique IV then Alfonso (XII) and Isabel. Enrique becomes King & wants the regnal power but the aristocracy doesn't want that.
Farse of Avila Aristocracy used Alfonso to become leader of their fight against the monarchy so is king for a day Alfonso (XII). He dies so his sister Isabel becomes the leader of the fight & marries Fernando prince of Aragon. Enrique IV dies & acknowledges daughter.
2nd Castilian Civil War Pope recognizes Isabel and Fernando's marriage making it legitimate so now Isabel and Juana fight for control of Trastamara dynasty between Castile and Aragon
Created by: 600383437