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History

History Midterm Vocab (IDs)

TermDefinition
Enlightenment: In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant defined Enlightenment as "man's leaving his self-caused immaturity. The 18th century Enlightment was a movement of intellectuals who dared to know.
Skepticism: portraying the churches as enemies of scientific progress.
Cultural Relativism: was accompanied by religious skepticism. As these travel accounts made clear, the Christian perception of God was merely one of many.
Philosophes: were literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and above all, social reformers. They came from both the nobility and the middle class, and a few even stemmed from lower origins.
Cosmopolitan: international movement
Deism: a religious outlook shared by many philosophes. Deism was built on the Newtonian world-machine, which suggested the existence of a mechanic (God) who had created the universe.
Laissez-Faire: a doctrine that subsequently became known by its French name. Meant "let people do as they choose".
Romanticism: intellectual movement that dominated Europe at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Salons: elegant drawing rooms in the urban houses of the wealthy where invited philosophes and guests gathered to engage in witty, sparkling conversations that often centered on the ideas of the philosophes.
Rococo: new style that began to affect decoration and architecture all over Europe.
Neoclassicism: emerged in France as an established movement in the late 18th century.
Pogroms: Jewish communities were looted and massacred, made Jewish existence precarious and dependent on the favor of their territorial rulers.
Methodism: was an important revival of Christianity and proved that the need for spiritual experience had not been expunged by the eighteenth-century search for reason.
Natural Laws:
Natural Rights: were thought to be inalterable privileges that ought not to be withheld from any person. These natural rights included equality before the law, freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech/press, the right to assemble, hold property, seek happiness.
Patronage: the financial support or business provided to wealthy aristocrats.
Enlightened Absolutism: the new type of monarchy that emereged in the late 18th century. Also called enlightened despotism. Monarchs followed the advice of the philosophes and ruled by enlightenedprinciples, establishing a path to modern nationhood.
Frederick II of Prussia: known as the Great, was one of the best-educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century. He was well versed in Enlightenment thought. His intellectual interests were despised by his father, who forced him to prepare for a career in ruling.
Catherine of Russia: emerged as autocrat of all Russia when Peter was murdered. She was an intelligent woman who was familiar with the works of philosophes. She claimed she wished to reform Russia along the lines of Enlightenment ideas.
Balance Of Power: was predicted on how to counterbalance the power of one state by another to prevent any one state from dominating the others.
Reason of State: on the basis of which a ruler and a minister looked beyond dynastic interests to the long-term future of their states.
Voltaire: achieved his first success as a playwright. A philosophe who was well known for his criticism of traditional religion and his support of religious toleration.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau:
Cottage Industry: system in which capitalist entrepreneurs sold the finished products, made a profit & used it to manufacture more. Spinners and weavers did their work in their own cottages.
Tithes: often one-third of the crops in which small peasant proprietors or tenant farmers owed.
Old Order/Regime:
Sans Culottes: ordinary patriots without fine clothes, who called themselves this proudly.
Jacobins:
De-Christianization: the word "saint" was removed from street names, churches were pillaged and closed by revolutionary armies, and priests were encouraged to marry.
Maximilien Robespierre:
Napoleon: officer in the military
Continental System: foreign policy of Napoleon in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Nationalism: This political creed had arisen during the French Revolution. Nationalism involved the unique cultural of a people based on a common language, religion, & national symbols.
Great Exhibition: was a symbol of the success of Great Britain, which had become the world's first industrial nation and its richest.
Trade Unions: formed by skilled workers in new industries. These unions served to preserve their own workers' position by limiting entry into their trade & to gain benefits from the employers.
Luddites: skilled crafts people in the Midlands & northern England who in 1812 attacked the machines they believed threatened their livelihoods.
Principle of Legitimacy: an idea proposed on Spetember of 1814 at the Congress of Vienna that was used as a guideline for rulers in Europe after the fall of Napoleon.
Principal of Intervention: meant that the great powers of Europe had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
Conservatism: an ideology which values the partnership and accepts change only reluctantly and at a slow pace.
Political Liberalism: politically, liberals came to hold a common set of beliefs. Cheif among them was the protection of basic rights of all people.
Economic Liberalism: the belief that the state should not interrupt the free play of the natural economic forces.
Utopian Socialism:
Created by: mr209368