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GI Course


What type of epithelium is the tongue? Keratinized stratified squamous
Name the Papillae of the tongue Filiform, Fungiform, Circumvalate, Foliate
Filiform Papillae Found on tongue, sharp extensions that cover most of the tongue. NO TASTE BUDS
Fungiform Papillae Little pale dots on surface of tongue, have taste buds
Circumvalate Papillae Large circular papilae near the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. have taste buds and & secretory glands.
Foliate Papillae longitudinal folds on the lateral aspect of tongue. have taste buds and secretory glands.
Describe the Taste Bud Their sensory cells contact the outside through pores in the tongue surface. The sensory cells are joined by supporting cells and basal cells which turnover every 10 days. Can see nerve bundles coming from the buds.
Lingual Salivary Glands (Von Ebner glands) Small serous glands at the base of papillae. They flush food matter from these "moats" and allow tastants to reach the taste buds. Autoimmune blocking of these causes tongue swelling.
What does two roles does the mucosa play? 1. Extract Nutrients 2. Protects the body from pathogens.
What are the three layers of the mucosa? 1. Epithelium 2. Lamina Propria (loose conec tissue) 3. Muscularis Mucosae
What is found within the submucosa? Large Vessels (veins, arteries,lymph), submucosal ganglia, glands, and large lymph nodules.
What is the outer layer of the gut tube? adventitia/serosa
adventitia loose connective tissue that anchors the gut tube to nearby structures in confined areas.
serosa thin layer of connective tissue covered by simple squamous tissue that surround peritoneal organs. Secretes a serous fluid that lubricates the gut.
Mucosa of the esophagus stratified squamous epithelium. as the esophagus nears the stomach the presence of cardiac glands occurs.
What is found in the esophageal submucosa esophageal glands
Gastroesophageal junction The shift between stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and the simple columnar (but highly folded) epithelium of the stomach.
what are rugae for? They are not increased surface area but instead used for expansion of the stomach.
What type of epithelium is found in the stomach? simple columnar
Describe the Mucosa and lamina propria of the stomach simple columnar, Invaginations (gastric pits) that lead to gastric glands.
Muscularis Externa of the stomach Has a unique, Deep oblique layer.
Parietal Cells Release HCL and IF in the stomach. Found in upper half of gastric glands.
Chief Cells Usually at the base of gastric glands. Release precursors to the digest enzymes pepsin, rennin, and lipase.
Enteroendocrine cells Found throughout the digestive tract and release hormones.
Explain the regional variation of the stomach. The simple columnar regions of the cardiac and pyloric regions have significant goblet cells lining the gastric pits. The fundus and body have more chief and parietal cells of the lamina propria.
Pyloric Sphincter Found in the pyloric region of the stomach. Formed by a thicker layer of the muscularis externa. Prevents emptying of the stomach until it relaxes.
General Role of the Small Intestines Raises pH of bolus as it exits the pyloric sphincter, adds bile from the liver, digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and absorbs nutrients.
Sizes of small intestine segments. D is 20 cm. Jejunum is 2/5 the length and Ileum is 3/5 the length.
Plicae circularis folds of mucosa AND submucosa. found in small intestines for increased SA.
Villi Found in small intestines, folds of mucosa only. A single lymphatic duct is found in the core of each villi called a lacteal.
Lacteal lymphatic duct found inside each villi of the small intestine.
Mucosa of the small intestine simple columnar epithelium. Many villi projecting into the lumen with many invaginations with intestinal glands (Crypts of Lieberkuhn).
Submucosa of small intestine Duodenal glands found in the duodenum and peyers patches found in the ileum.
Regionalization of goblet cells. increase in number as you move through the small intestine.
Paneth Cells Generally found at the base of intestinal glands. acidophillic granules containing lysozyme and other antimicrobial enzymes.
Enteroendocrine cells. release hormones. some have taste bud sensors and release different hormones according to what they taste in the small intestine.
Stem Cells of small intestine are in lower 1/3 of intestinal gland. Paneth and enteroendocrine cells tend to migrate down the gland. goblet and enterocyte cells migrate up the glands and villi but are shed into the lumen after 4-6 days.
Role of Duodenum Receives the gastric contents and neutralizes its pH. It also controls the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver
Duodenal Glands secrete mucous and bicarb to raise the pH to protect the digestive tract and enable function of pancreatic enzymes.
What special structures are found in the Ileum? NONE!!!
Transportation of Fats, Carbs, and Protein Carbs and Protein are transported to the liver via the portal system. Fatty molecules get absorbed by lacteals which transport them to larger lymph ducts then into the blood. FATS BYPASS THE LIVER.
Lamina Propria of the Ileum. Contains large lymph nodules called Peyer patches which are a major component of our immune maintenance of the normal flora of gut and response to infection.
Peyers patches Found in Ileum (lamina propria). and are a major component of our immune maintenance over the normaflora of the gut and response to infection.
Pernicious Anemia Caused by the lack of uptake of B-12 which is used to make RBC. Can be caused by careless removal of parts of the stomach or ileum.
General function of Large Intestine receives bolus from ileum. Absorbs water and electrolytes.
Ileocecal Valve found at the terminal end of the ileum, thickening of muscularis externa. NOT a true sphincter.
Mucosa of Large Intestine Simple Columnar Epithelium. No villi but have many invaginations with intestinal glands.
Muscularis Externa of Large Intestine The outer longitudinal layer is arranged into three bands called the tenia coli that move feces through the colon.
Diverticula out pouching of the colonic lumen
polyps proliferating masses that grow into the lumen
Internal anal sphincter formed from the circular layer of muscularis externa. Relaxes when it becomes full and gives the sense of urgency.
External anal sphincter formed by bundles of skeletal muscle. Allow us to hold back using the bathroom.
Anus develops from? somatic tissue that invaginates to meet the digestive tract.
Differences between anus and rectum? anus is stratified squamous while rectus is simple columnar with goblet cells. Also there are different arteries, veins, and nerve supply.
Micro of the Anus distended veins, one of few places with apocrine sweat glands, as well as hair follicles and sebacious glands.
Created by: 622988909