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Anatomy chapter six

the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched. elasticity
four major functional characteristics Contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity
muscles help to produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature.
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath. the epimysium.
connective tissue located outside the surrounds and separates muscles fascia
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi
muscle fasciculi is surrounded by loose connective tissue called the perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called fibers
each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell containing what? several nuclei
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with what? myofibrils
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers: actin myofilaments, and myosin myofilaments
thin myofilaments actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
joined end to end to form the myofibril sarcomeres
the sarcomere is the basic structural and functional unity of the what? muscle
each sarcomere extends from? one Z line (disc) to another Z line.
each Z line is an attachment site for what? actin
the arrangement of actin and myosin give what type of appearance? banded
on each side of the Z line is a light area called a what? I band
the I band consists of what? actin
the A band extends the length of the what? myosin
in the center of each sarcomere is another light area called the what?` I band
the H zone only consists of what? myosin
the myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the what? M line
the outside of the most cells membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane, which is what? negatively charged
the charge difference across the membrane is called? resting membrane potential
when a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics do what? change briefly
the brief reversal back of the charge is called? action potential
are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers. motor neurons
axons enter the muscles and what? branch
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a what near the center of the cell? neuromusclular junction or synapse
a singles motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called? motor unit
many motor units form what? a single muscle
a neuromusclular junction is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indetation of the what? muscle cell membrane.
the enlarged nerve terminal is the? presynaptic terminal
the space between the preynaptic terminal and the cell is the what? synaptic cleft
muscle fiber is the what? postsynaptic terminal
each preynaptic terminal contains what? synaptic vesicles
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter called? acetylcholine.
it diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the what? postsynaptic cell
when an action potential reaches the nerve terminal, it causes the synaptic vesicles to releases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft by what? exocytosis
the combination of acetylcholine with its receptor cause an influx of sodium ions into the what? muscle fiber
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes called? acetycholinesterase
this enzymatic breakdown ensures that one action potential in the neuron yields only one action potential in the skeletal muscle and only one contraction of the what? muscle cell
occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten is? muscle contraction
when the sarcomeres shorten it causes the.... muscles to shorten
the sliding of myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called? sliding filament mechanism
is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. muscle twitch
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called? threshold
a point when the muscle fiber will contract maximally. This is called? all-or-none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the? lag phase
the time of contraction is the? contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes is the? relaxation time.
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated is called? recruitment
ATP is needed for energy for? muscle contraction
ATP is produced in the? mitochondria
ATP is short-lived and? unstable
ATP can store another high energy molecule called? creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic
the energy in ATP is used to? synthesize creatine phosphate
with oxygen aerobic respiration
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose is oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells... muscle fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change isometric
the amount of tension is constant during contraction isotonic
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
is the most stationary end of the muscle origin
is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the belly
some muscles have multiple origins or... head
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called? synergists
muscles that work in oppostion to one another are called? antagonlists
if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement it is called the? prime mover
Created by: alishacooper



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