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Central Aud Pathways

S&H A&P PowerPoint 8

Afferent Ascending (towards the brain, inward)
Efferent Descending (away from the brain, outward)
Auditory nerve enters cranium through the Internal Auditory Meatus, synapses with cells of the Cochlear Nucleus in the brainstem
Cochlear Nucleus First auditory relay station found in the brainstem, tonotopically organized. It decodes basic signal features: timing, onset, intensity level, and sound localization on the vertical axis
The Cochlear Nucleus projects to (4) Superior Olivary Complex(mostly contralaterally), which then connects to the Inferior Colliculus; the Inferior Colliculus; the Reticular Formation, and the Facial Nucleus and the Facial Nerve
Reticular Formation Associated with alertness and response to stress (e.g. if there is an explosion nearby, you will wake up before perceiving the sound. Therefore if someone cannot perceive sound in the auditory cortex, they will still wake up)
Facial Nucleus If the sound is loud enough it will alert the facial nerve, causing musculus stapedius to contract and protect from loud sounds
Superior Olivary Complex made of several nuclei including the medial and lateral superior olive (the MSO and LSO respectively). It is important for sound localization on the horizontal access (Interaural Level Difference and Time Difference)
Interaural Level Difference LSO measures the ILD to get sound localization on the horizontal plane
Interaural Time Difference MSO measures ITD to get sound localization on the horizontal plane
Inferior Colliculus Major integrative station, collects info from several sensory systems. Sends from cochlear nucleus-->MGB-->PAC
Medial Geniculate Body Last of a series of processing centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex
Primary Auditory Cortex Lies on the temporal lobe at the Heschl's gyrus, where auditory sensations reach perception. Tonotopically organized, PAC involved in identifying and segregating auditory objects/scenes
Oliviocochlear System Efferent, MSO-->the myelinated Medial Oliviocochlear Fiber (MOC); LSO-->the unmyelinated Lateral Oliviocochlear Fiber (LOC)
Medial Oliviocochlear Fiber myelinated, projects to OHCs. Can release a chemical on OHCs that prevent electromotility, thus preventing amplification of a sound that is already loud. (cochlear suppression)
Lateral Oliviocochlear Fiber unmyelinated, projects to IHCs. Very thin, don't know much about them. (Afferent Excitation/Suppression)
Created by: 100000299709410