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The Digestive System

an/o- no; not; without
bar/o- pressure; weight
chol/e- bile; gall
cholecyst/o- gallbladder
col/o colon (large intestine)
colon/o- colon (large intestine)
dent/o- tooth
dont/o- tooth
duoden/o- duodenum
enter/o- intestines (usually small intestine)
esophag/o- esophagus
gastr/o- stomach
gloss/o- tongue
hepat/o- liver
ile/o- ileum
jejun/o- jejunum
lingu/o- tongue
lith/o- stone, calculus
or/o- mouth
pancreat/o- pancreas
phag/o- eat; swallow
proct/o- anus and rectum
rect/o- rectum
sigmoid/o- sigmoid colon
stomat/o- mouth
-emesis vomiting
-lithiasis the presence, condition, or formation of stones
-pepsia digestion
-phagia eating; swallowing
aerophagia The swallowing of air, whether deliberately to stimulate belching, accidentally, or as an involuntary habit.
amebic dysentery inflammation of the intestines caused by Endamoeba histolytica
anastomosis communication between vessels by collateral channels.
anorexia nervosa a psychiatric disorder characterized by an unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image.
antiemetic a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting.
aphthous ulcers a blister on the mucous membranes of the lips or mouth or gastrointestinal tract.
ascites The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling.
bariatrics The branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of obesity.
borborygmus A rumbling or gurgling noise made by the movement of fluid and gas in the intestines.
botulism Food poisoning caused by botulinum growing on improperly sterilized canned meats and other preserved foods.
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors.
cachexia Weakness and wasting of the body due to severe chronic illness.
cheilosis a disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a deficiency of riboflavin.
cholangiography X-ray examination of the bile ducts, used to locate and identify an obstruction.
cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts.
cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder.
choledocholithotomy Surgery that involves the removal of one or more obstructive gallstones from the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis The formation of gallstones.
cholera An acute infectious disease of the small intestine, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps, severe dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes
cirrhosis A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue.
colonoscopy visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum;
Crohn's disease A chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, esp. the colon and ileum.
diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum, esp. in the colon, causing pain and disturbance of bowel function.
diverticulosis A condition in which diverticula are present in the intestine without signs of inflammation.
dyspepsia Indigestion.
dysphagia condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful.
emesis The action or process of vomiting.
enteritis Inflammation of the intestine, esp. the small intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhea
eructation belching; casting up wind from the stomach through the mouth
esophageal varices extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower esophagus.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy A procedure that enables the examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first portion of small bowel) using a thin flexible tube (a "scope") that can be looked through or seen on a TV monitor.
gastroduodenostomy Gastroduodenostomy is a surgical procedure where the doctor creates a new connection between the stomach and the duodenum.
gastroesophageal reflux disease A chronic condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter allows gastric acids to reflux into the esophagus, causing heartburn, acid indigestion, and possible injury to the esophageal lining.
gastrostomy tube A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot obtain nutrition by swallowing.
hematemesis vomiting blood.
Hemoccult test A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool
hepatitis A disease characterized by inflammation of the liver.
herpes labialis oral herpes: caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).
hiatal hernia hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm.
hyperemesis severe and excessive vomiting.
ileus a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine
inguinal hernia hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males.
jaundice Yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues.
melena Dark sticky feces containing partly digested blood.
morbid obesity a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health
nasogastric intubation the placement of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distension by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food
obesity a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health.
periodontium the bone, connective tissue, and gum surrounding and supporting a tooth.
peristalsis The wavelike muscular contractions of the intestine or other tubular structure that propel the contents onward by alternate contraction and relaxation.
proctopexy fixation of a prolapsed anus and rectum
regurgitation vomiting
salmonellosis a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
sigmoidoscopy Examination of the sigmoid colon by means of a flexible tube inserted through the anus.
stomatorrhagia hemorrhage from the mouth.
trismus Spasm of the jaw muscles, causing the mouth to remain tightly closed, typically as a symptom of tetanus.
ulcerative colitis a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever
volvulus An obstruction caused by twisting of the stomach or intestine.
xerostomia abnormal dryness of the mouth resulting from decreased secretion of saliva.
Created by: 302449