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Chapter 26

World War I

QuestionAnswer
How did Germany rise to the status of a Great Power? Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany
How did Germany decide to keep the peace? alliances with Arustria-Hungary and Russia because they were too big
What happened in Germany after Bismarck's dismissal that was detrimental to Europe during World War I? Germany didn't renew a no agression pact with Russia, so Russia and France became alllies.
Who made up the Triple Alliance? Austria, Germany, and Italy
Who made up the Dual Alliance? Russia and France
What country stayed uncommitted to one side the longest? Great Britain
Who did Britain ally with? Japan (1902) and France (1904)
Who formed the Triple Entente? Great Britain, France, and Russia
What factor increased international tensions, militarily speaking? German build up of navy and army caused Britain to see it as a military challenge and a threat.
What event began the war? the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist
Who killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand? Gavrilo Princip
When was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand? June 28, 1914
What occurred between the West and the Ottomans in the early 1900s that caused conflict? The West asked the Ottomans to give up all their European territories which caused an increase in Ottoman nationalism.
What did Serbia want for the state? They wanted a unified state which caused increased hostility towards the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary.
What did Austria-Hungary do to stop Serbian expansion? annexed Bosnia and Herzegovinia in 1908
Who attacked who in the First Balkan War? Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria attacked the Ottoman Empire.
When was the First Balkan War? 1912
When was the Second Balkan War? 1913
Who attacked who in the Second Balkan War? Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece, Bulgaria's former allies.
Who intervened in the Second Balkan War, and what did they do? Austria-Hungary forced Serbia to give up Albania
Who was defeated in the Second Balkan War? the Ottomans
What did the Ottomans demand after the Second Balkan War? freedom from Austria-Hungary
What was Germany's involvement at the beginning of WWI? They sent support to Austria-Hungary and encouraged them to confront Serbia with the hope that Britain would become embroiled in the war and they would have a chance to beat their military and become a greater power.
When did Russia declare war? July 29, 1914
Who did Russia declare war on? Austria-Hungary and Germany
What Russian declared war? Tsar Nicholas II
What was the Schlieffen Plan? failed German plan calling for quick attack through neutral Belgium which caused Great Britain to declare war on Germany
When did Great Britain declare war on Germany? August 4, 1914
What is total war? where the lines between the battle field and home front are blurred and the government controls the economy and social lives of the people in order to supply soldiers with weapons and other necessities
What was one of the main reasons why the Schlieffen Plan failed? Russia attacked Eastern Germany, causing them to transfer soldiers to the East. This reduced the number of people who were able to invade Paris, thus causing them to fail in their plan of capturing Paris.
In the Battle of the Marne, who attacked who? France attacked a gap in the German line.
In the Battle of the Marne, who won? France
In the Battle of the Marne, what type of military tactic was created? trench warfare
When did the Battle of the Marne occur? It started on September 6, 1914 and ended in November.
List all of the technological advances. Hint: There are 7! machine guns, poisonous gases, flame throwers, hand grenades, long range artillery, airplanes, and tanks
Where and when was the Battle of the Somme? Northern France in 1916
Who attacked who in the Battle of the Somme? Britain attacked Germany.
Who won the Battle of the Somme? Britain succeeded in pushing Germany back 7 miles.
What were German occupied territories like? military bureaucracy ~ anti-slavic ~ Slavs seen as savages ~ used POWs and refugees as forced laborers ~ stole animals and crops from farmers ~ 1/3 of the population was killed or became refugees
What were Austria and Germany later called? Central Powers
Who did the Italians join after their bout of neutrality until 1915? the Triple Entente
Who did the Ottomans join? the Central Powers
What was the Armenian Genocide? The Ottomans deported hundreds of thousands of Armenians and killed about 1,000,000.
In what year and on whom did the US declare war? 1917 - Germany
What event caused the US to declare war? 139 people on the British boat, the Lusitania, were killed by German submarines
Who was the president at the time the US declared war? Woodrow Wilson
What did each combatant state establish? government ministries to mobilize soldiers and armaments and to heal wounded ~ censorship office – control war news ~ free-market capitalism – abandoned in favor of planning boards
What did planning boards do in the late 1800s? set production goals, established rationing programs, and set limits on wages and prices
Who was Walter Rathenau? a Jewish industrialist in charge of Germany's large electrical company
What was Germany's planned economy like? everything rationed and inventoried ~ provided substitutes for things they were lacking ~ didn't tax profits of private firms hard enough ~ little more than 1,000 calories a day ~ women worked in war factories, mines, and steel mills
What was the Auxiliary Service Law, and when was it put in place? 1916 - all males between 17 and 60 could only work at jobs needed for the war
What did Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff do? Who supported them? They drove German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg from office with the support of the conservative Fatherland Party.
What did Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff establish in Germany? What did they call for? They established a dictatorship and the first totalitarian society. They called for the ultimate mobilization of war.
What did the British Ministry of Munitions do? organized private industry to produce for war ~ allocated labor ~ set wage and price rates ~ settled labor disputes
War was good for the growth of a __________ _______-________. bureaucratic nation-state
What part of society did the war benefit? the economy
What was there an increase of during war time? Hint: there are two. Jobs were readily available, and greater power and prestige was given to the labor unions
What did the war do to aid in social equality? blurred class distinctions ~ lessened gap between rich and poor ~ more uniform and egalitarian
In which European country was social equality most appearent? Great Britain
Due to the many deaths, this generation was named the "______ generation." lost
What group of people were normally spared from death and why? often spared highly skilled workers and foremen because they normally stayed at home to train women and older unskilled men in war plants at home
Who was Karl Liebknecht, and what did he do? He was a radical socialist leader who attacked the costs of war in front of thousands on May 1, 1916. This electrified Europe's far left.
Briefly describe the Easter Rebellion. Irish revolted against Britis war in 1916. They fought for a week before the rebellion was crushed, and the leaders were executed.
What sort of government did France transform into in 1916? a virtual dictatorship under George Clemenceau
What happened with the French army in May 1917 and why? They refused to fight after an failed offensive attempt.
How did France get their men to fight? They used tough military justice with mutiny leaders and understood agreement with troops that it would never happen again
Who is Henri-Philippe Petain? the new French general in chief after May 1917 who was able to restore order
What strike occurred in April 1917 and after what event did it occur? bread ration reduced and 200,000 women and workers went on strike in Berlin for a week before being threatened with prison and military discipline
What happened at the German home front that caused many to lose their lives? 750,000 Germans starved to death due to skimpy rations
What occurred in Russia in September 1915 that turned out to be detrimental to the Russian government under Tsar Nicholas II? parties from conservative to moderate socialist formed Progressive bloc which wanted a new Duma-controlled government
Who did Tsar Nicholas II leave the government with while he went to the home front? his wife, Tsarina Alexandra
Who did Tsarina Alexandra dismiss in favor of Rasputin? loyal political advisors
Who was Rasputin, and why did Alexandra want him? He was an uneducated Siberian preacher who gained fame through supposed healing powers. Her son, Alexis, had hemophilia which she believed Rasputin could heal.
When and by whom was Rasputin killed? 3 members of aristocracy murdered Rasputin in December 1916
What did thousands of Russian soldiers do in early 1917 and why? deserted the army after having limited success against Austrians and a hard winter (food shortages, short supply of heating fuel, economy breaking down)
What happened when the tsar told the army to crush the violent demonstrations in Petrograd in March 1917? The army joined the protestors.
When did the Duma declare provisional government? March 12, 1917
When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicate? March 15, 1917
What and when was the February Revolution? unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917 (old calendar February) in Petrograd, Russia, that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government
What did the Russian upper and middle classes want in early 1917? ok with more war effort
What did the Russian lower class want in early 1917? better wages and more food
What five things did the Russian provisional government establish? equality before the law ~ freedom of religion, speech, and assembly ~ right of unions to organize and strike
Who rejected the political reforms of the Russian provisional government? liberal and moderate socialist leaders
In May 1917, who was the prime minister of the new government, and what was his political orientation? socialist, Alexander Kerensky
What was the Petrograd Soviet? a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905
What did the Petrograd Soviet do that weakened the provisional government? issued its own radical orders
What was the most famous edict of the Petrograd Soviet, and when was it issued? Army Order No. 1 in May 1917
What was Army Order No. 1? took away officers’ authority ~ placed power in hands of elected committees of common soldiers ~ used to protect the revolution from resistance by aristocratic officer corps ~ led to collapse of army discipline
How did the Russian summer offensive against Germany in July 1917 go? failure
Describe the after effects of the failed Russian summer offensive in July 1917. peasant soldiers deserted and returned to their villages to help families get a share of land ~ peasants seized land in agrarian upheaval ~ Russian anarchy in summer of 1917
Describe Lenin's early life. middle class ~ enemy of Russia because his older brother plotted to kill the tsar in 1887 ~ law student ~ studied Marxist socialism which he updated to address current Russian conditions
What is the literal meaning of the term "Bolsheviks?" “majority group”
What is the literal meaning of the term "Mensheviks?" "minority group”
Who were the Bolsheviks? small, disciplined, elitist party
Who were the Mensheviks? democratic party with mass membership
What famous phrase did Lenin use to increase popular support? "Bread, Land, and Peace"
In July, the _________ attempted to seize power and ________. This caused Lenin to ___ _____ ________. In July, the Bolsheviks attempted to seize power and lost. This caused Lenin to go into hiding.
Who was General Lavr Kornilov? Kerensky's commander in chief
What did Kerensky and Kornilov attempt to do in September in response to the Bolshevik's attempt to seize the power? They tried to lead a feeble coup against the government.
Who eventually won the Bolshevik vs. Kerensky stuggle for political control? Bolsheviks
Who was Leon Trotsky? Lenin supporter ~ revolutionary orator ~ radical Marxist
What did Trotsky do? convinced Petrograd Soviet to form military-revolutionary committee and make him the leader, so military power was in the Bolshevik’s hands
What did the Bolsheviks do on November 6? militants from the committee and Bolshevik soldiers seized government buildings and attacked members of the provisional government
What happened at the Congress of Soviets? Bolshevik majority declared all power had passed to soviets and named Lenin head of new government
Name three reasons why the Bolsheviks were able to come to power. 1917 democracy gave way to anarchy ~ Lenin and Trotsky had superior leadership which tsarist and provisional gov. lacked ~ Bolsheviks appealed to soldiers and urban workers who were tired of war and tsarist aristocracy, and ready for radical changes
What did Lenin do about the peasant revolution and urban workers desires that seems sort of contradictory? They divided themselves among estates of landlords and church, so he approved of what the peasants were already doing. Urban workers made their own committees (soviets) and wanted direct control of factories which he also allowed.
Lenin promised that a ________ elected ____________ Assembly would write a new ____________. Lenin promised that a freely elected Constituent Assembly would write a new constitution.
What was the problem with the election for Assembly representatives? The Bolsheviks only won 23% of elected delegates. The Socialist Revolutionary Party (peasants' party) won with 40% of vote.
What did Lenin do in response to the outcome of the election for Assembly representatives? He disbanded the Constituent Assembly after only one day. He formed a one-party state after only two months of being in office.
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire’s population to the Central Powers
Who were the "Whites" in Russia? opposed to government and communism
Who were the "Reds" in Russia? Bolsheviks
What years did the Russian civil war include? 1918-1920
What happened to start the Russian civil war? 18 regional governments challenged Lenin's government in Moscow, and White armies closed in on central Russia from 3 sides
Name the six reasons why the Red Army won. better army ~ decisive leadership under Trotsky ~ strict discipline for soldiers and draft ~ Reds had major cities ~ White politics - united and varied ~ minorities promised autonomy (Reds) vs. tsarist empire (Whites)
What was war communism? the application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work
What was the Cheka? secret police ~ imprisoned and executed thousands of class enemies without trial
Who were victims of the Cheka? victims: clergymen, aristocrats, wealthy Russian bourgeoisie, deserters from the Red Army, political opponents (including tsar and family)
When was the Red Terror? 1918-1920
Who did foriegn militaries support: Whites or Reds? Whites
Western Allies (_________, _________, ________, and __________) sent troops to help suppress ___________, but their efforts were __________ because they didn't want to get involved in a _______. Western Allies (United States, British, France, and Japan) sent troops to help suppress communism, but their efforts were limited because they didn't want to get involved in a war.
To whom did the Bolsheviks appeal and why? old tsarist officers who despised foreign involvement in Russian affairs
Who was almost defeated in the spring of 1920: Whites or Reds? Whites
What did Jozef Pilsudski do? stopped the Bolsheviks from spreading communism into the West on the outskirts of Warsaw
How close did the Germans come to Paris? What stopped them? They came within 35 miles of Paris but were stopped by the 2nd Battle of the Marne.
When Germany realized they had lost, what did they do? insisted that moderate politicians take responsibility for the defeat
What helped the Allied victory? massive American intervention
William II _________ and fled to __________. William II abdicated and fled to Holland.
Name the date the war ended. November 11, 1918
What countries were formed after the division of Austria-Hungary? Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Romania
What did Serbia take control of and what did they name it? western Balkans named Yugoslavia
The German Revolution was an _________ from below that crushed ____________ ___________ and created a ___________ ____________ republic. Moderates and liberals held on to create the ________ __________. The German Revolution was an uprising from below that crushed authoritarian monarchy and created a liberal provisional republic. Moderates and liberals held on to create the Weimar Republic.
What did the radical communists do, and by whom were they led? Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg tried to seize control of the government in Spartacist Uprising in Berlin in January 1919
What did the moderate Social Democrats do in response to the uprising in Berlin? called in nationalist Free Corps militias (demobilized soldiers who had kept their weapons) ~ tried to crush rebellion ~ Liebknecht and Luxemburg arrested and murdered
What was Barvaria? a short-lived Soviet republic that was overthrown by Free Corps on government orders
What was the Treaty of Versailles (brief description)? 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers
How was the Treaty of Versailles produced? produced by a conference with 70 delegates from 27 nations
What were Germany's reprecussions under the Treaty of Versailles? Germany’s colonies given to France, GB, and Japan ~ Alsace-Lorraine back to France ~ German army could only have 100,000 men and no military forts in Rhineland
What three other changes were made to the Central Powers under the Treaty of Versailles? new independent nations from Austria-Hungary and Russia: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland, the Baltic states, and Yugoslavia ~ Ottoman Empire split apart and placed under victors ~ Polish territories seized by Prussia given back
What were Wilson's fourteen points? Hint: there are five listed. Wilson’s 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination
What was the League of Nations? permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris peace conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars
What is national self-determination? the notion proposed by Wilson that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with clearly defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections
What were the problems with national self-determination? caused a jumble of ethnic groups, economically weak, politically unstable ~ in colonies, desires were ignored ~ Great Powers didn’t want to give up colonies ~ paid little attention to desires of native people in Ottoman Empire
Who were the Big Three? US, Great Britain, and France
Who was excluded from the conference? Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia excluded
What country was Woodrow Wilson with? US
What country was Lloyd George with? Great Britain
What country was Georges Clemenceau with? France
What did Clemenceau want to do with Germany? wanted revenge, economic retribution, and lasting security with a buffer state between France and Germany, the demilitarization, and reparations
What did George think about this? supported Clemenceau but was less harsh
What did Wilson think about Clemenceau's idea? disagreed because they violated Christian morality and self-determination
What was France's compromise? gave up demand for buffer in return for defensive alliance with US and GB
What was the war guilt clause, who had to sign it, and when did they sign it? article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared Germany (with Austria) solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting ~ Germany had no choice but to sign ~ June 28, 1919
Why did the Western alliance collapse? The United States Senate refused to accept the treaty with France and Great Britain because they believed that it violated their constitutional right to declare war.
__________ encouraged war in the Middle East with vague promises of independence. Britain
What did Britain really do with the Middle East and with whom did they do it? Britain and France divided up the Middle East between themselves.
What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916? named Great Britain and France diplomats
What three countries did France get? Lebanon, Syria, and much of Southern Turkey
What three countries did Great Britain get? Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq
What was the Balfour Declaration of November 1917? • British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine ~ 1914 – 3 Jewish districts that would be lumped together to form Palestine
What did this violate? Islamic and Ottoman tradition of tolerance of religious diversity and minorities as well as majority rule
What was the result of the General Syrian Conference? met in Damascus in 1919 ~ proclaimed Syria and independent kingdom ~ similar congress declared Iraqi independence
What was the western reaction? French army in Lebanon attacked Syria, taking Damascus in July 1920 ~ Arab government fled ~ British put down Iraqi uprising with bloody fighting ~ Western imperialism replaced Ottoman rule in the Arab Middle East
What four countries occupied Turkey? Great Britain, France, Italy, and Greece
What was the Battle of Gallipoli? Turks (resistance led by Mustafa Kemal) vs. British in which Greece and British allies sued for peace
What and when was the Treaty of Lausanne? 1923 - recognized integrity of independent Turkey and abolished the Capitulations that gave Europeans special privileges in their country
What did Kemal want for Turkey? Turkey should modernize and secularize like Westerners ~ established republic ~ elected president ~ one-party system ~ limited religion and religious leaders in daily affairs ~ separation of church and state ~ secular public school ~ women’s rights
How many total soldiers were dead at the end of the war? 10-13 million
What country had the highest number dead? Germany with 2 million dead and 4 million wounded
What country had the highest proportion lost? 1.2 million dead, 1 out of 10 adult males
How many total civilians were dead because of the war? 7-10 million
What was another cause for death in 1918, and how many died? a worldwide flu epidemic killed 20 million
What fraction of the German federal budget was used to pay for victims of war? 1/3
Created by: spschoolstudy