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Ch 12 Endocrine Syst

Endocrine System

What are Endocrine Glands? Ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are also called? Chemical catalysts
What does a chemical catalyst do? Cause a reaction to occur
The balancing act to maintain the body's internal environment within certain narrow ranges is known as? Homeostasis
The pituitary gland is located where? Base of the brain
The pituitary is the size of what? A pea
What are 2 other names for the pituitary gland? Hypophysis or "master gland"
The pituitary is called the "master gland" because? Its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands
What structure controls the pituitary? Hypothalamus
Anterior and Posterior lobes are sections of what gland? Pituitary gland
Growth Hormone(GH)is produced in which lobe of the pituitary? Anterior lobe
Which hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary stimulates cell metabolism causing cells to replicate and increase in size? Growth hormone(GH)
Dwarfism is caused by? Insufficient amounts of Growth hormone
What condition is caused by excessive amounts of Growth hormone? Giantism
What is the name of a synthetic Growth hormone? Humatrope(somatropin)
Thyroid Stimulating hormone(TSH)is produced in what area of the pituitary? Anterior lobe
What is the function of TSH? To stimulate the thyroid to produce its hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone is AKA? TSH,T7,Thyrotropin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) is produced where? Anterior lobe of Pituitary
Stimulating the adrenal glands to produce their hormones is the fuction of which pituitary hormone? Adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone(ACTH)
Melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH)is produced in which lobe of the pituitary? Anterior lobe
What does MSH do? Stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin
What is albinism? Hereditary disorder characterized by an absence of melanin
Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)comes from which structure? Anterior lobe of pituitary gland
The two main functions of FSH are? Stimulate ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle(oocyte)into an ovum,Stimulate testes to create spermatozoa
Luteinizing hormone(LH)Stimulates which processes? Ovulation,Production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy,Production of testosterone in males
Luteinizing hormone(LH)is produced from? Anterior lobe of pituitary
Lactogenic hormone is AKA? Prolactin
Production of milk(lactation)is stimulated by which pituitary hormone? Lactogenic hormone
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH)is produced in which structure? Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH)is AKA? Vasopressin
Antidiuretic hormone directly influences what? The volume of urine produced
Diabetes Insipidus(DI)is caused by? Insufficient production of ADH
A synthetic form of ADH is known as? Pitressin(vasopressin)
Oxytocin(OT)is produced in which portion of the pituitary? Posterior lobe
What purpose does oxytocin serve? Stimulates the uterus to contract during labor
What is Pitocin(Pit drip)? Synthetic form of oxytocin
Which hormone is also known as the binding hormone? Oxytocin
What does Binding refer to? Male-Female and Mother-Neonate bonding
Where is the Thyroid gland located? On the right and left sides of the trachea just inferior to the larynx
Which 3 hormones are produced by the Thyroid? T4(thyroxine),T3(triiodothyronine),and Calcitonin
T3 and T4 are commonly referred to as? Thyroxine
Carbohydrate,protein,and fat metabolism are regulated by which 2 hormones? T3 and T4
What is metabolism? The rate at which the body burns energy
Hyperthyroidism is AKA? Grave's Disease
Hypothyroidism is AKA? Myxedema
A synthetic thyroxine is called? Synthroid(levothyroxine)
When is calcitonin released by the thyroid? When the blood calcium levels rise
Calcitonin causes the deposit of what 2 elements in the bones? Calcium(Ca)and Phosphorus(P)
Where are the Parathyroid glands located? Embedded in the posterior surface to the thyroid gland
Which structures are the size of raisins? Parathyroid glands
Parathyroid glands secrete what hormone? Parathyroid hormone(PTH)
Parathyroid hormone is AKA? Parathormone
PTH causes osteocytes to release what into the blood? Stored Calcium(Ca)and Phosphorus(P)
PTH is released by the Posterior lobe of the pituitary when? Serum calcium levels fall
What structures are located just superior to the kidneys? Adrenal Glands
The Adrenal glands are AKA? Suprarenal glands
The Adrenal medulla is? The inner portion of the adrenal glands
The Adrenal cortex is? The outer portion of the adrenal glands
Adrenalin(AKA epinephrine)is produced by? Adrenal medulla
Which hormone contributes to the "fight or flight" response? Adrenalin(epinephrine)
What reactions in the body occur during the fight or flight response? Breakdown of glycogen to glucose,Tachycardia,Tachypnea,Bronchodilation,Hypertension,Pallor
What two hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex? Aldosterone and Cortisol(Hydrocortisone)
Aldosterone and Cortisol are AKA? Steroids(Corticosteroids)
Synthetic versions of testosterone used by athletes are called? Anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroid use are associated with what conditions? Aggressiveness(roid rage),Liver cancer,a Sudden death(MI,CVA)
Electrolyte balance is regulated by what hormone? Aldosterone
Sodium(Na),Potassium(K),Chloride(Cl),Calcium(Ca),and Phosphorus(P)are all? Electrolytes(salts)
What are the three actions of cortisol? Maintain proper glucose concentration in the blood between meals,Helps reduce the inflammatory response,Aids the body with stressful situations
Cushing's Disease is caused by? Hypersecretion of cortisol
Addison's Disease is a result of? Hyposecretion of cortisol
What is cortisone? A synthetic cortisol
Where is the pancreas located? Posterior to the stomach(retrogastric)
The purpose of the pancreas includes production of? Insulin and glucagon
Insulin is secreted when? Blood sugar rises after eating a meal
Insulin allows the glucose(BS) to? Enter the cells
Blood sugar(BS)will fall when what happens? Glucose enters the cells
What does it mean when the pancreas secretes glucagon? Blood sugar has fallen too low
When BS falls to low, Glucagon will stimulate the liver to do what? Convert glycogen to glucose, causing BS to rise.
A normal blood sugar range is considered? 70-130mg/dL before meals,Less than 180mg/dL 2hrs after meals
Diabetes Mellitus(DM)is? Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glucose(insulin resistance)by the cells
A synthetic insulin is called? Humulin(insulin)
What are oral hypoglycemics(antidiabetics)? Medications designed to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin or aid the cells in glucose utilization
Risk factors for DM include? Heredity,Obesity,Overconsumption of refined sugars,Overconsumption of food,Sedentary lifestyle,Gestational Diabetes,African American,Native American,Hispanic,Asian American,Chronic Hypertension
What are the 3 terms used to describe Diabetes mellitus that develops in children? Juvenile onset diabetes mellitus,Insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM),Type1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 is the most serious form of DM and requires what control methods? Daily injections of insulin,Strict diet control,Regimented exercise
Maturity onset DM,Non-insulin dependent DM(NIDDM),and Type2 DM are all terms used to describe? Diabetes mellitus(DM)that develops in adulthood
Type2 DM is less severe and can often be controlled by? Proper diet alone, or Proper diet and Oral hypoglycemics
What is the function of oral hypoglycemics? Stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin and/or allows the cells to utilize glucose(BS) more efficiently
What are the signs and symptoms of DM? Polyuria,polydipsia,glycosuria,ketonuria,wt loss,fatigue,poor/delayed wound healing
Complications of DM include? Atherosclerosis leading to MI,CVA,or occlusion of a leg artery resulting in gangrene;Diabetic Retinopathy(DR)which can result in blindness;Neuropathy causing pain,tingling,loss of feeling,and paralysis;kidney failure,Impotence(ED)
Treatment for DM includes? Strict diet based on proper portions of carbs,fats,proteins;Correct insulin dosage;Regular exercise
Diet,insulin,or exercise can't be altered without creating? Insulin excess or deficiency
Diabetic coma can result when a diabetic does what? Fails to take enough insulin,Increases caloric intake,Decreases exercise
Deep labored breathing,Dry skin and mouth,Fruity smell to breath,Lethargy,Loss of consciousness(LOC)and coma are all s/s of what? Diabetic coma
Diabetic coma is treated with? Insulin administration and hydration
Insulin shock results when a diabetic does what? Administers too much insulin,Doesn't eat enough food,Exercises regularly
S/S of Insulin shock includes? Shallow breathing,Diaphoresis,Syncope,Loss of Consciousness(LOC)
How is Insulin shock treated? Administration of sugar in any form
What are "brittle diabetics"? Diabetics that have difficulty controlling their blood sugar
Other risk factors for DM are? Highly irregular menses,>40 days between cycles,Waist size >40 for males and >35 for women
Some studies indicate that type 2 DM can double the risk of? Alzheimer's disease
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
PPBS Postprandial Blood Sugar
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar
A1c(HbA1c) Provides average of you BS control over a 6-12 week period
4%-6% A1c normal range
Fructosamine test Measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
PBI Protein Bound Iodine(Thyroid blood test)
RAIU Radioactive Iodine Uptake test(Thyroid)
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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