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MTEL Tech and Eng

MTEL Tech and Eng Study Guide

TermDefinition
CTE stands for career and technical education advisory committee. They determine and recommend curriculum that will prepare students to pass the state assessment and earn a Certificate of Academic achievement or CAA
Tech Prep A high school program that provides students with technical training, applied academics, and assistance in finding internships and guidance.
Workflow An abstraction of work that is performed by a single person or group of people.
Karl Benz inventor of the gasoline powered car in 1885
Wilbur and Orville Wright developed the airplane in 1903
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce developed the integrated circuit in 1958
Robert E. Kahn and Vince Cerf developed the TCP/IP protocol which gave rise to the internet in 1983
Biotechnology the technological application of biology in medicine, agriculture, biological engineering, bioremediation and biodegredation, cloning, and the Human Genome Project
Bernoulli's principle states that when the speed of an inviscid flow increases, the pressure of the flow will decrease
Aerodynamics The study of the properties of moving air, and esp. of the interaction between the air and solid bodies moving through it.
Petrochemicals (chemical engineering) includes ethylene, propylene, benzene, and styrene
Agrochemicals (chemical engineering) includes fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides
Polymers (chemical engineering) includes polyester, polyethylene, and Bakelite
Fragrances (chemical engineering) includes vanillin and coumarin
Inorganic industrial compounds(chemical engineering) includes ammonia, nitric acid, sodium hydroxid, and sulfuric acid
Organic industrial compounds (chemical engineering) includes phenol, urea, and ethylene oxide
Ceramics (chemical engineering) includes silica bricks and frit
Explosives (chemical engineering) includes ammonium nitrate, nitrocellulose, and nitroglycerine
Oleochemicals (chemical engineering) includes lard and soybean oil
Elastomers (chemical engineering) includes polyisoprene, neoprene, and polyurethane
Engineering Design Process (steps) includes 1 Research 2 Conceptualization 3 Feasibility assessment 4 Establishing the design requirements 5 Preliminary design 6 Detailed design 7 Production planning and tool design 8 Production
Technology system a man made system that combines materials, devices, energy, structures and information to solve problems and create products
Feedback occurs when output produced by a particular event or behavior influences a recurrence of the same event or behavior in the future
Criteria parameters of a system design. The manner in which it should function
Constraints are the limits on the system (includes human capabilities, space, materials, time, and cost
Optomization is a process through which designers and engineers attempt to make a product or system as efficient and functional as possible
Tradeoff occurs when on e characteristic is lost in exchange for another characteristics with a different sent of strengths and weaknesses
ISO 9000 is a set of rigorous international quality standards that are applicable to numerous types of standards
Ergonomics is a method of creating equipment and devices in such as ways as to place the least amount of stress on the human body and its mental faculties.
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act. ADA creates and publishes construction standards intended to help provide disabled persons with better access to buildings.
Troubleshooting Diagnose and resolution phases make up troubleshooting
Manufacturability determines the easy at which a product can be manufactured
Invention the process by which new technologies are developed
Physical model three dimensional copies that can be smaller or larger than the product they represent
Scale model a special type of physical model where the size is exactly proportional to the original item
Prototype scale models that are the same size as the products represent.
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet. Explains the properties of a substance and provides a means of cataloging substances according to their effects and risk.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Federal regulatory agency that enforces workplace safety and health standards.
Safety Assessment a method of quantifying and understanding the hazards and risks associated with certain products and materials, such as hazardous chemicals
Flowcharts illustrate the steps within various algorithm or process
Graph is a visual representation that conveys complex information or concepts in a quickly and easily understandable way
Potential energy the stored capacity for work in a physical body
Joule the SI unit of energy
Kinetic energy w/ equation energy of a moving object KE = 1/2mv2
work the energy required to exert a given force over a given distance. Measured in joules or N(m)
Power the measure of the amount of work performed in a certain interval or work divided by time
Watt the unit of power in joules per second
Work-energy theorem as work increased the kinetic energy increases. The amount of work performed equals the change in kinetic energy or work = delta KE
Thermal energy is the degree of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up a substance. Also referred to as heat
Law of Conservation of Energy energy can not be created nor destroyed but can only be converted or transferred.
Efficiency the degree to which a device uses the input energy to accomplish its intended task. Input minus output times 100.
Coulumb's Law describes the force relationship between 2 charged particles. f = k(q1xq2)/d2
Electrical Current the flow of electrons
Amperes the measurement of electrical current. 1 ampere is equal to the rate of the flow of one coulomb of charge per second
Direct current current where electrons flow only in one direction like in a battery system
Alternating current current where the electrons flow in one direction and then in the other. Electrons go back and forth and never really move
Voltage the measurement of pressure of electrical difference due to a difference in charge. voltage = potential energy/charge
Electrical resistance a material's opposition to the flow of electric current
Ohms The SI unit of electrical resistance, expressing the resistance in a circuit transmitting a current of one ampere when subjected to a potential difference of one volt
Ohm's Law States that, in a given electrical circuit, the amount at current in amps is equal to the pressure in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. The formula is: I (Current) = V voltage or V = I x R R resistance or R = V/I.
Electric power The amount of work a given current can do in an interval. It is measured in watts. Watts = volts(amps)
Series circuit when components in a circuit are arranged one after the other in the same circuit.
Parallel circuit a circuit in which an electric current has two or more paths to follow
Terminal (electrical component) the point in a circuit where the current is either initiated or broken (ex. a battery has two terminals)
Resistor (electrical component) controls the level of current in a circuit by providing resistance. Most work by converting current into heat
Diode (electrical component) restricts the flow of current in only one direction; used to convert alternating current to direct current and to amplify the current in one direction. Composed of the anode and the cathode
Amplifier (electrical component) any device, such as a transistor or an electron tube, that increases the amplitude of an electrical circuit
Capacitor (electrical component) aka condenser; stores electrical charge temporarily; typically composed of two metal plates separated by a thin insulator; used for controlling and moderating current
Transducer (electrical component) converts energy into a different form; like a microphone converts sound energy into electrical energy
Detector (electrical component) identifies and possibly responds to a certain electrical signal
Transistor (electrical component) can function in a circuit as a detector, switch or amplifier
Transformer (electrical component) shifts electric energy from one circuit to another, often with a change of current of voltage
Switch (electrical component) alternately completes, diverts, or breaks a circuit
Relay (electrical component) a type of switch that, when activated by a small current, initiates a larger current; when the smaller current reaches the relay a gate closes, thus completing the circuit for the larger current; relays are used in televisions and telephone transmission
Internal combustion motor converts chemical energy into mechanical energy by burning. It is internal when the burning takes place inside a small cylinder
Electric motor converts magnetic force into kinetic energy
Cam a rotating disk shaped to convert circular into linear motion
Gear interlocking toothed wheels, one of which is connected to a shaft; when the shaft is twisted the drive wheel spins in one direction and causes the other wheel to be spun in the opposite direction.
Linkages a system of connected bars held together by springs or hinges, the piston, rod, and crankshaft in a car engine comprise a four linkage bar
Pneumatic system a system which operates with the aid of compressed air
Hydraulic system a system that operates with the aid of pressurized liquids. They are known for efficiency and their ability to generated more force than pneumatics
Pulley a simple machine composed of at least one wheel with a rope extending around the rim
Transmission (simple machines) the component of a machine that directs the energy created to the intended task
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. ...
Building inspector An authorised person who is responsible for checking buildings in the course of construction and completed buildings to ensure that they have been constructed in accordance with building control provisions.
Safety specialist maintain safe environments within construction areas
Site manager ensures that a building project does not exceed budget or time schedule
Contractor supervise the entire construction process including construction of work spaces, homes, and schools
Light construciton describes light frame construction which is limited to floor and ceiling joists, rafters, and wood stud walls.
Heavy construction applies to any construction that uses cranes, excavators or large machinery
Industrial construction applies to the construction of factories, manufacturing facilities, power plants and processing plants
Clean Air Act regulates the admissions of six pollutants including carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. In 1990 189 addition air pollutants were added
Clean Water Act CWA; regulates the quality and pollution of all navigable waters
Wilderness Act establishes national wilderness preservation system that forbids any road construction, settlements or mechanized transportation in its boundaries
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA; regulates industrial waste and the manner in which it is generated stored, treated, transported and disposed of
Endangered Species Act protects threatened or endangered species on public and private land
Euclidean zoning characterized by the segregation of land uses into specified geographic districts and dimensional standards stipulating limitations on development activity within each type of district.
Cumulative zoning allows a single land use district to combine less intensive land uses, such as residential, with light industrial uses. Heavy industrial must remain by themselves
Exclusive/non-cumulative zoning the dominant zoning method which forbids a land use district from incorporating any developments which do not no conform to its dedicated use
Transect zoning divides the development area into six zones including wilderness area, and each other zone gets more urban. It encourages mixed use zoning.
Overlay zoning superimposes a noew zone on top of an existing land use zone and imposes different requirements and standards
Floating zones unmapped zoning districts that enable municipalities to promote certain land uses without reserving an areas for a specific use.
Cluster zoning imposes strict density standards in setting lot size and setback. They have high populated areas surrounded by low density areas
Rezoning is the act of changing zoning classifications of a land use district
Upzoning a type of rezoning which higher density developmenmts are allowed within a land use district
Downzoning reducing the intensity of a development areas
Variances allow land uses within particular district that are otherwise forbidden under existing zoning ordinances.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction ETJ; is the power of the municipality to enforce zoning ordinances outside its jurisdiction
Arch is a structure that supports weight atop an open space, such as athe top of a window. It is normally semicircular in shape but can have a flat or pointed shape. They remove tensile strength as compressive load
Cantilever is a projecting structure that receives support at only one end and carries a load at the other end.
Suspension is a structure that consists of cables supporting a horizontal beam, such as a suspension bridge
Truss is a triangular structure formed by straight beams. A node is formed where the beams connect
Manufacturing engineers improve and streamline the production process by designing manufacturing equiptment and systems and finding ways to lower costs and increase profitability
Automation technician are responsible for creating, installing, and repairing automated systems and equipment
Industrial engineer create designs and improve existing models for a variety of manufactured products, especially commercial, medical and industrial goods
Quality control engineer improve the quality of manufactured products
Production engineer help design manufactured products by doing market research and collaborating with industry
Product safety technicians test products to ensure compliance with safety regulations
Manufacturing technician repair production equiptment and facilitate proper equiptment fuctionality
Just-in-time manufacturing is lean manufacturing technique. It lowers cost and increases profit by reducign or eliminating excess inventory. Inventory is made for specific orders
Continuous flow manufacturing CFM is a lean manufacturing technique. It holds that manufacturing process should produce only one peice of material at a time and at a rate determine by customer needs
Takt time is a part of lean manufacturing specifically CFM. Takt time = available production time / rate of customer demand. It is a pace needed to meet production
Intermittent manufacturing produces only goods necessary to fulfill costomers orders and not keep them in stock.
Custom manufacturing produces foods for a specific person or purpose
Automated manufacturing relies on automated machines and equiptment to create products
Kaizen is a Japanese word meaning continuous improvement. It involves improving quality
Enterprise resource planning ERP integrates all business functions and manages the flow of information between those function and people within the organizations and between organizations and stakeholders. It often relies on specialized software.
5S programs are structured around five basic principles of sortm straighten, scrub, systematize, and sustain. It helps eleminate waste
Total productive maintainance TPM, increases equipment effectiveness by implementing coordinated group activities and involving all operators in machin inspections and routine maintenance and repair
Simple Minute Exchange of Die SMED, increases production efficiency by drastically reducing setup change times during shift changes
Supply chain management oversees the entire production process, including raw materials acquisition, inventory maintenance, manufacturing of goods and delivery
Labeling requirements are imposed by the FDA, FTC and DOA to educate consumers on the contents of the product before purchasing
Trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers
Patent a government authority to an individual or organization conferring a right or title, esp. the sole right to make, use, or sell some invention
Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work.
Trademark a formally registered symbol identifying the manufacturer or distributor of a product
Finishing involves changing or coating the surface of a material in order to protect or beautify it
Hardening increases the hardness of a metal by heating and then rapidly cooling it
Annealing softens a metal by heating and then soly cooling it. It increases the ductility of the metal and decreases its brittleness.
Tempering is a heat treatment that increases the metals toughness
Normalizing is a heat treatment that returns metal to its near equalibrium state of strength and toughness.
Rapid prototyping is the automatic (using CAM) construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology. The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts
Rapid manufacturing aka direct digital manufacturing involves producing parts based on information in CAD
Casting An object made by pouring molten metal or other material into a mold
Forming involves shaping a material using a die or external force
Seperating involves removing excess material from an object in order to create size and shape
Conditioning involves applying heat, pressure, or chemical reactions in order to change the property of a material
Assembling involves fastening, bonding or joining pieces together either temporarily or permenantly
Software developer aka analyst developer or programmers, they examine the requirements for new or modified computer applications and translates them into program specifications
Business systems analyst aka business systems planner or solutions architect, identifies the business and information needs within an organization and enhances productivity and efficiency through IT solutions
Database programmer is responsible for database design, implementation, maintenance, and security
Informaiton systems analyst determines whether or not the computer system is fulfilling the organization's needs in the most efficient manner
Chief Information Officer CIO, leads an organization's IT group
Computer Engineer designs, installs, and performs maintenance on computers and computer equipment
Web developer creates, tests, and maintains web pages and links
Telecommunications describes the act of communication by transmitting information over long distances including radio, telephones, email, IM and video conderencing
Network node is any computer linked to the netweork
Network interface cards enable computers to connect over a network
Repeater enable signals to travel farther in the network without degradation and receives signals and cleans and regenerates them
Bridges first read the destination address of a signal and then only forward it to the other network if the signal is intended for a computer on the opposite side
Switches are similar to bridges but are capable of connecting more than to bus networks
Ericcson is a Swedish corporation that provides telecommunications and data communication systems. It is the larges mobile telecommunications distributor in the world
Cisco Systems is an American corporation that designs and markets voice communications technology, networking tech, communication services, and consumer electronics
Huawei is the larges supplier of networking and telecommunications equipment in China and the second largest in the world behind Ericcson
ZTE designs and manufactures telecommunications equipment and systems
Avaya is a private companies that supplies enterprise network, telephony, and call center tech
NEC is a Japanese corporation that sells IT and networking solutions
Verizon Wireless is the largest US provider of wireless phone service
AT&T mobile is the second largest wireless provider in the US
China Mobile is a Chinese, state owned, telecommunications company and the largest telecommunications and mobile provider in the world
Vodafone is a British telecommunications company and the second larges in term of subscribers and the largest in terms of revenue
America Movil is a Mexican telecommunications company and the fourth largest mobile provider in the world
Server is a computer program which serves the needs of other computer programs. EX. file server, database server, and print server
Port can either be a physical interface between two computing devices(hardware) or a virtual connection between two computer programs (software)
RAM stands for random-access memory and is part of the hard disk into which the computer can both read and write information
ROM stands for read only memory and usually refers to the data stored on the computers motherboard that cannot be overwritten
Router allows multiple networks to be linked across the internet
Network topology is the arrangement of nodes within the network
LAN stands for local area network and covers a local area such as the inside of a home or private business. WiFi can be a LAN
MAN stands for metropolitan area network and connects multiple LANs
WAN stands for wide area network and covers a wide outdoor area and usually serves to connect office buildings or provide public internet access.
PAN includes WiFi networks, fixed wireless data networks and other small area networks. Bluetooth is a type of PAN technology
BIOS stands for basic input/output and is a chip that is build directly into a computer. It is known as the boot firmware because it is the first program to run when a computer is turned on. The main function is to turn on the operating system
CPU stands for central processing unit and manipulates the data in the computer
Arithmetic/logic unit part of the CPU which carries out operations like addition and subtraction on data
Control unit part of the CPU which manages machine activities
Register unit part of the CPU which consists of registers, which are data storage cells that provide temporary information storage within the CPU
Expansion cards enhance the functionality of a computer system like increased memories, or enhanced sound or graphics
Peripheral device is any electronic device that is external to the computer and attached to it in some way
General-purpose registers temporarily store data that the CPU is currently using .
Special-purpose registers help execute programs and come in two basic types 1) instruction registers and 2) program counters
JPEG stands for joint photographic experts group, provides digital storage of pictures
TIFF stands for tagged image file format and provides digital storage for scanned images
GIF stands for graphics interchange format and compresses graphs and graphic files and stores them digitally
MPEG stands for moving picture exert group and compresses digital videos and animations and stores them digitally
DVI stands for digital video interactive and is a type of interactive video system which is capable of processing images, text, audio and video
Texture is the perception of a surfaces quality like smooth, rough or satiny
Value aka tone. uses light and dark contrasts to create depth and perception within an image
Form is an object with three measurable dimensions of height, width, and depth
Sketching is a freehand drawing that only gives an idea of the finished product
Drawing is made by an instrument or manually and usually involves instruments of measurement
Vector graphics editor software that can create and edit simple geometric forms
CAD computer-aided design uses computers to draw in 2 dimensions or 3 dimensiosn
Multiview drawing involves orthographic projects
Exploded view drawing displays the relationships between various components of a product as well as the order in which they should be assembled
Radio waves have long wavelengths, ranging from a few centimetres to many thousands of kilometres in length. They are used among other things for television, cell phone and radio communications.
Microwaves An electromagnetic waves are shorter than that of a normal radio wave but longer than those of infrared radiation. Microwaves are used in radar, in communications, and for heating in microwave ovens and in various industrial processes
Terahetz radiation is generally shorter than microwave radiation and longer than infrared radiation. It is used in high altitude telecommunications between satellites and airplanes.
Infrared radiation is generally longer than terahertz radiation. It is used for sending remote control signals, free space optical communications, optical fiber communications and short distance communications between computer peripherals
Visible light spectrum is directly above infrared radiation and is the spectrum the human eye can see. Optical fiber uses visible light to convey sound and image information
Untraviolet spectrum is shorter than the visible spectrum and is used for security marks and optical storage of information
Orthographic projection displays the object along all sides by having the parallel projection lines intersect the viewing plane at 90 degrees
Isometric projection foreshortens all three aces equally around an object. When drawn on a paper each axis line will be drawn at 120 degrees from other axis lines.
Oblique projection is created by taking the parallel projection line and having them intersect the viewing plane at angels other than 90 degrees. Usually lines of depth are drawn at 45 degree angels.
Tolerances express the limits on particular characteristics such as physical dimensions, measured value of a service or product, measured value of surrounding space and physical distance between components
Scale is the ratio at which the object in the drawing corresponds to the product in real life
Database management system DBMS, is a group of software applications that manage information within a database
Search engine is a software application that provides links to Web sites based upon information given by the user
Metasearch engine inputs the word or phrase provided by the user into multiple search engines
Video production is the process of recording, editing, and distributing a video
Computer animation is the process of digitally creating animated images
Digital imaging is the process of creating digital graphics and images
Audio mixing is the process of combining multiple recorded sounds intro one or more channels
Web developing is the process of designing a website and includes a variety of tasks and functions
Buoyancy is a force that causes objects to float in a fluid
Gravitational Acceleration is a downward force exerted on an object by gravity
Momentum equals an objects mass multiplied by its velocity, p=m(v),
Inertia is an objects innate resistance to changes in its state of motion or rest. Newtons first law
Weight is a force that gravity applies on an opbject
Energy storage is the process of using devices or media to store energy for use at a later time
Guidance is the process of controlling the movement, speed, and navigation of craft.
Dispatch is a vehicle assignment procedure used by companies that operate fleets of vehicles
Vehicle Tracking is a system capable of determining the location, speed and direction of a fleet vehicle via GPS
Thrust is a reaction force that occurs when mass expelled or accelerated in one direction causes a proportional force in the opposite direction
Drag is a force created by a fluid passing over an object.
Lift is a surface force created by fluid passing over an object.
Fleet management seeks to decrease the risks, improve the productivity and lower the operating costs of a company's fleet of vehicles
Routing (vehicle) involves selecting paths and roadways a group of vehicles will use to reach their desitnation
Transmission (gears) aka gearbox, uses gear ratios to convert between speed and torque
Piston converts pressure into rotational force
Crankshaft converts linear motion of the pistons into rotational motion that passes through the transmission and eventually turns the wheel
Belt and Pulley System consists of multiple pulleys connected to belts used for transmitting torque
Fiber optics The use of thin flexible fibers of glass or other transparent solids to transmit light signals, chiefly for telecommunications or for internal examination of the bod
Created by: MrJeffcoat