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Chapter 24 Anatomy & Physiology

The process of passing traits from biological parents to children is called Heredity
The study of Heredity or inheritance is called Genetics
All humans cells (except for germ cells) Contain 23 pairs of _____________ Chromosomes
Chromosomes consist of long strands of tightly coiled _______ DNA
Contain the traits that each person inherits Genes
Varies in size, ranging from a few hundred DNA bases to more then 2 million Genes
Similar in structure , such as two similar chromosomes that are paired together Homologous
A chart showing all chromosomes arranged in order by size and structure Karyotype
Non-sex Chromosomes Autosomes
Each pair of chromosomes consists of a chromosome inherited from the mother and a chromosome inherited from the father Autosomes
Chromosomes designated by the letters X and Y that determine gender Sex Chromosomes
In Females, both chromosomes are relatively large and designated by the letter ___ X
in males, one sex chromosome is an X and one is a smaller chromosome designated by the letter Y
The location of specific gene on a chromosome is called its Locus
this allows the genes supplied by the egg to align with the similar genes supplied by the egg to align with the similar gene supplied y the sperm Locus
if a person has two alleles that are the same, the person is said to be _________ for that trait Homozygous
If the alleles are different, the person is said to be ________ Heterozygous
Alternative from a gene Allele
A complete set of genetic information for one person is called Genome
An allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different Dominate Allele
An allele that produces it characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical Recessive Allele
is a phenomenon in which a single gene has more then one dominate allele Codominant
if a gene's information is used for something such as making a protein it is said to be _________ Expressed
Females= XX
Males= XY
How many chromosomes do you receive from mom 23
How many chromosomes do you receive from dad 23
The genetic information stored at the locus of the gene, even if those traits are not expressed Genotype
The detectable, outward manifestation of a genotype Phenotype
A permanent change in genetic material is known as a Mutation
When the defective allele is dominant, it overrides the normally functioning gene and the disorder results Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
the offspring must inherit two copies of the defective allele before the disorder manifest itself. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
The most common disorders result when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis is called Nondisjuction
Both chromosomes go to the same daughter cell, while the other daughter cell doesn't receive a chromosome is called Nondijuction
When fertilization adds the matching chromosomes, one daughter cell has three of that particular chromosomes this is called Trisomy
Is where the other daughter cell has no chromosome with no mate is called Monosomy
If a boy inherits an extra X chromosome (XXY) ____________ develops Klinefelter Syndrome
Becomes apparent in males at puberty when secondary sexual characteristic fail to develop Klinefelter Syndrome
if a girl is born with only one x chromosome Turner Syndrome
Becomes apparent in females at puberty when secondary sexual characteristic fail to develop Turner Syndrome
the environmental factors that have a strong influences over genetic mutation, determining the progression of a disease or even whether the disease develops at all Multifectorial inheritance
Phenomenon whereby genes at two or more loci contribute to the expression of a single trait Polygenic Inheritance
Someone who carries a normal gene along with it recessive allele Carrier
Created by: Leci81