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Ch 12

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
The endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are chemical catalysts
A chemical catalyst causes a reaction to occur
Hormones help maintain the body’s internal environment within certain narrow ranges. This balancing act is called homeostasis
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain
The pituitary is the size of a pea
The pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis or “master gland.
It is called the “master gland” because its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands.
Even though the pituitary is called the “master gland” it is controlled by the hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is divided into two sections called the anterior and posterior lobes
Significant amounts of GH is secreted until age 20
. GH which stands for growth hormone
GH stimulates cell metabolism causing cells to divide (replicate) and increase in size.
Insufficient amounts of GH can cause dwarfism
A synthetic GH is called Humatrope (somatropin
Excessive amounts of GH can cause giantism
TSH (T7) which stands for thyroid stimulating hormone and is AKA thyrotropin.
TSH stimulates the thyroid to produce its hormones
ACTH which stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce their hormones.
. MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone
MSH stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin (skin pigment
A hereditary disorder characterized by an absence of melanin is called albinism
FSH which stands for follicle stimulating hormone
FSH stimulates the Ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle (oocyte) into an ovum.
FSH stimulates the . Testes to create spermatozoa (spermatogenesis
LH which stands for luteinizing hormone
LH stimulates . Ovulation
LH stimulates The production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy
LH stimulates Production of testosterone in males.
Lactogenic hormone AKA prolactin
Lactogenic hormone stimulates the production of milk (lactation
. ADH which stands for antidiuretic hormone
antidiuretic hormone AKA vasopressin
ADH influences the volume of urine produced
Insufficient production of ADH is called Diabetes Insipidus (DI
A synthetic ADH is called Pitressin (vasopressin
OT which stands for oxytocin
OT stimulates the uterus to contract during labor
A synthetic oxytocin is called Pitocin (“Pit drip”).
Oxytocin is also known as the binding hormone
Binding refers to male-female and mother-neonate bonding.
The thyroid gland is located on the right and left sides of the trachea just inferior to the larynx
The thyroid produces the following hormones: . T4 also known as thyroxine.
The thyroid produces the following hormones: . T3 also known as triiodothyronine
The thyroid produces the following hormones: Calcitonin.
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as thyroxine
T3 and T4 are responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
Metabolism refers to the rate at which the body utilizes (burns) energy
Hyperthyroidism is called Grave’s disease
Hypothyroidism is called myxedema
A synthetic thyroxine is called Synthroid (levothyroxine
Calcitonin is released when the blood calcium levels rise
Calcitonin causes the deposit of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in the bones.
The parathyroid glands are located embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the size of raisins
parathyroid hormone (PTH) AKA parathormone.
PTH causes osteocytes to release stored calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) into the blood.
Release of PTH will occur when serum Ca levels fall
The adrenal glands are located just superior to the kidneys
The adrenal glands are AKA suprarenal glands
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal medulla
The outer portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex
The adrenal medulla produces Adrenalin
Adrenalin AKA epinephrine
Adrenalin (epinephrine) contributes to the “fight or flight” response
“fight or flight” response includes The breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
“fight or flight” response includes Tachycardia
“fight or flight” response includes Tachypnea
“fight or flight” response includes Bronchodilation.
“fight or flight” response includes Hypertension
“fight or flight” response includes Pallor
The adrenal cortex produces Aldosterone
The adrenal cortex produces Cortisol (hydrocortisone
These hormones are AKA steroids (corticosteroids
Anabolic steroids, the type used by athletes, are synthetic versions of testosterone
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: Sudden death (MI, CVA).
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: Liver cancer
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: Aggressiveness (“roid rage”).
Aldosterone regulates the balance of electrolytes (“lytes”).
The electrolytes (salts) include Sodium (Na).
The electrolytes (salts) include Potassium (K)
The electrolytes (salts) include Chloride (Cl).
The electrolytes (salts) include Calcium (Ca).
The electrolytes (salts) include Phosphorus (P
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: . Maintain proper glucose concentration in the blood between meals.
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: Helps reduce the inflammatory response.
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: Aids the body with stressful situations
Hypersecretion of cortisol is called Cushing’s disease
Hyposecretion of cortisol is called Addison’s disease
A synthetic cortisol is called cortisone
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric).
The purpose of the pancreas includes the production of insulin and glucagon
Insulin is secreted when the blood sugar (BS) rises after eating a meal.
The insulin allows the glucose (BS) to enter the cells.
When the glucose enters the cells the blood sugar (BS) level will fall
When the blood sugar (BS) falls too low the pancreas will secrete glucagon
Glucagon will stimulate the liver to convert glycogen to glucose
This action will cause the glucose (BS) to rise
A normal blood sugar (BS) is: 70 - 130 mg/dL before meals (a.c.)
A normal blood sugar (BS) is: Less than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after meals (p.c.).
Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glucose (insulin resistance) by the cells is called diabetes mellitus (DM).
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin (insulin).
Medications designed to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin or aid the cells in glucose (BS) utilization are called oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics).
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Heredity
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Obesity
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Over consumption of refined sugars
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Over consumption of food
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Sedentary lifestyle (little or no regular exercise).
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Gestational (pregnancy) diabetes mellitus (DM).
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: African American, Native American, Hispanic, Asian American
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Chronic hypertension (HTN).
Diabetes mellitus that develops in children is called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus (DM
Diabetes mellitus that develops in children is called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
Diabetes mellitus that develops in children is called type I diabetes mellitus (DM).
Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most serious form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and requires Daily injections of insulin.
Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most serious form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and requires Strict diet control
Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most serious form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and requires Regimented exercise
Diabetes mellitus (DM) that develops in adulthood is called maturity onset diabetes mellitus (DM
Diabetes mellitus (DM) that develops in adulthood is called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) that develops in adulthood is called type II diabetes mellitus (DM).
This type of diabetes mellitus (DM) is less severe and can often be controlled by proper diet alone
This type of diabetes mellitus (DM) is less severe and can often be controlled by proper diet and oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) such as Diabenese or Glucophage.
Oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin and/or allows the cells to utilize glucose (BS) more efficiently.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Polyuria (excessive urination
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: . Glycosuria (sugar in the urine
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Polydipsia (excessive thirst
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: . Ketonuria (ketones in the urine).
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Weight loss
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: . Fatigue
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Poor wound healing
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Atherosclerosis leading to myocardial infarction (MI), cerebral vascular accident (CVA) or occlusion of a leg artery resulting in gangrene
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) which can result in blindness
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: . Neuropathy causing pain, tingling, loss of feeling, and paralysis
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: . Kidney failure
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Impotence AKA erectile dysfunction (ED
Treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) includes: Strict diet based on number of calories per day divided into proper portions of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) includes: Correct dosages of insulin based on self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM
Treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) includes: Regular exercise because diet intake and insulin (Humulin) dosage are based on the metabolic needs of the individual.
Diet, insulin, or exercise cannot be altered without creating an insulin excess or deficiency
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic: Fails to take enough insulin
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic: Increases caloric intake
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic: Decreases exercise
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: Deep labored breathing
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: Dry skin and mouth
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: Fruity smell to breath
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: Lethargy (mental sluggishness
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: Loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma.
Treatment of diabetic coma includes administration of insulin and hydration.
Insulin shock (deficient BS) results when a diabetic: Administers too much insulin
Insulin shock (deficient BS) results when a diabetic: Does not eat enough food
Insulin shock (deficient BS) results when a diabetic: Exercises excessively
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include: Shallow breathing
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include: . Diaphoresis (profuse sweatiness
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include: Syncope (fainting
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include: Loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma
Treatment for insulin shock includes administration of sugar in any form
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Follow prescribed diet exactly
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: . Take prescribed insulin or hypoglycemics as directed.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Monitor BS every day
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Follow daily exercise regiment
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Always wear feet protection to prevent injury from stubbing, fire ants, sand spurs, etc.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Have a podiatrist take care of ANY foot needs immediately such as clipping toe nails, corns, bunions, calluses, wounds, etc. to prevent accidental injury.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: A medical alert bracelet or necklace should be worn at all times.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: Always check temperature of bath water before stepping into bath to prevent scalding.
Even a small wound to a diabetic’s feet can result in uncontrolled infection due to poor wound healing and can eventually lead to putrefaction (gangrene) and amputation of the extremity
Diabetics that have difficulty controlling their blood sugar are called “brittle diabetics.”
Other risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include Highly irregular menses
Other risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include More than 40 days between cycles
Other risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include A waist size greater than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women
Some studies indicate that type II diabetes mellitus (DM) can double the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
GTT glucose tolerance test
PPBS postprandial blood sugar
FBS fasting blood sugar
A1c (HbA1c provides an average of your BS control over a 6 to 12 week period
A1c (HbA1c) normal range 4% - 6% (DM > 7%)
fructosamine test measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
PBI protein bound iodine
RAIU radioactive iodine uptake test
HCG human chorionic gonadotropin (serum and urine pregnancy test
Created by: 1130905247