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Bio 350, Exam 2

What's a Synapse? Point at which one neuron connects to another
What are the two types of synapses? Chemical and electrical
What's plasticity? It's crucial to memory and the higher brain functions.
Four types of CNS synapses based on connection? 1. Axodendratic (attaches to dendrite) 2. Axosomatic (attaches to soma) 3. Axoaxonic (attaches to axon) 4. Dendrodenditic (dendrites form synapses)
Differences between Gray's type 1 & 2 synapses? Grays's type 1 has a thicker pre-synaptic membrane, while Gray's type 2 has a similar membrane thickness on both the pre- and post-synaptic sides.
Benefits of elexctrical transmission? 1. Either chemical or electrical 2. Electrical synx
Action potential? Caused by depolarization of the membrane beyond threshold Short term change in the electrical potential such that the inside of the membrane becomes positive with respect to outside.
Seven key events of action potential? 1. Threshold 2. Rising Phase 3. Overshoot 4. Falling Phase 5. Undershoot 6. Absolute Refractory Period 7. Relative Refractory Period
1. Threshold? Membrane potential at which enough voltage-gated sodium channels open so that the relative ionic permeability of the membrane favors sodium over potassium.
2. Rising Phase? When inside of the membrane has a negative electrical potential, there is a large driving force on Na+. Na+ rush into the cell through the open Na+ channels = membrane rapidly depolarizes.
3. Overshoot? The membrane potential goes close to ENa which is > zero mV The point at which the membrane potential becomes positive.
4. Falling Phase? Voltage gated Na+ channels inactivate. The voltage gated K+ channels open. K+ rush out = of the cell potential becomes negative again.
5. Undershoot? Open voltage gated K+ channels increase potassium permeability. Relative Na+ permeability is low. Membrane potential goes to EK; hyper polarization relative to the resting membrane potential, until the voltage gated potassium channels close again
6. Absolute Refractory Period? Membrane is strongly polarized = Na+ channels inactivate. They cannot be activated until the membrane potential goes -ve to de- inactivate the channels
7. Relative Refractory Period? The membrane potential stays hyperpolarized until the voltage gated potassium channels close = more depolarizing current is required to bring the potential to threshold.
Orthodromic conduction? Action Potential travels only in one direction does not turn back on itself.
Refractory Periods? Refractory periods are times when it is either impossible or more difficult than normal to generate a second action potential.
Absolute Refractory Period? During this period the voltage gated channels responsible for the action potential have not reset and therefore, do not respond to stimulation.
Relative Refactory Period? The membrane potential stays hyperpolarized until the voltage gated potassium channels close more depolarizing current is required to bring the potential to threshold.
Excitability? Excitability varies among neurons, as they vary in the type and # of voltage-gated channels. Also, consider spontaneous firing, accelerating/deaccelerating train of potentials, secondary messengers, and desensitation.
Created by: 1256828643
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