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Pregnancy & Human D.

Chapter 23 Anatomy & Physiology

Gel-like membrane surrounding the ovum Zona Pellucida
A fertilized egg is called a Zygote
Ranges from conception until birth and lasts about 266 days Gestation
The duration of pregnancy is divided into three month periods called Trimesters
this trimester lasts from conception through the first 12 weeks First Trimester
During this period of time, the developing embryo is most susceptible to toxins, stress, drugs, and nutritional deficiencies First Trimester
This trimester ranges from week 13 through week 24 Second Trimester
Most of the organs are developed during this phase Second Trimester
This trimester lasts from week 25 until birth Third Trimester
the period of growth before birth is called Prenatal
Begins at fertilization and lasts for 16 days Preembryonic Stage
Begins after the sixteenth day and lasts until the eighth week Embryonic Stage
Brings the eighth week and lasts until birth Fetal Stage
Mitotic division of the zygote is called Cleavage
**important To REMEMBER** The PROCESS when a cell splits into Two IDENTICAL daughter cells is called Mitosis
**Important to REMEMBER** The growth of organs and tissues in a developing child, the repair of damaged tissue following injury, and the replacement of cells that die through the course of everyday living IS CALLED Mitosis
Divides by mitosis to form two daughter cells Called Blastomeres
A blackberry-like cluster 16 cells called Morula
Hollow space filled with fluid Blastocoele
outer most layer of the developing blastocyst Trophoblast
About Six days after ovulation, the Blastocyst attaches to the endometrium Implantation
the closed sac between the embryo and amnion, containing amniotic fluid is called the Amniotic Cavity
the floor of the amniotic cavity is formed by the Embryonic Disc
the membranous sac attached to an embryo, providing early nourishment Yolk Sac
Produces all organs and tissues of the body in the embryo Germ Layers
is one of the primary germ layers, known as the outer most layer Ectoderm
is one of the primary germ layers, known as the middle layer Mesoderm
is one of the primary germ layers, known as the inner most layer Endoderm
A hormone that prompts the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Develops into the epidermis, nervous system, pituitary gland, optic lens, and salivary glands. Ectoderm
develops into bones, muscle, cartilage, blood, and kidneys Mesoderm
develops into the epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of the bladder and urethra, thyroid and parathyroid glands, liver, and thymus Endoderm
The embryonic stage begins and the product of conception is now called an Embryo
A transparent sac that completely envelopes the embryo Amnion
is filled with amniotic fluid Amnion
the Fluid that protects the embryo from trauma as well as changes in temperature Amniotic fluid
the outer most membrane of the embryo Chorion
Finger like projections that penetrate the uterus Chorion
serves as the foundation for the developing umbilical cord Allantois
about 11 days after conception, the embryo develops a disk-shaped, pancake like organ called the Placenta
Secrets hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy and supplying the fetus with oxygen and nutrition Placenta
the chronic villi projects into maternal blood sinus called Lacunae
Connects fetus to placenta Umbilical cord
the fetal heart pumps blood to the placenta via to Umbilical arteries
the blood returns to the fetus by the way of the Umbilical vein
Shunts blood around the liver Ductus Venous
and opening to the two atria, shunts blood directly from the right atrium to the left Foramen Ovale
livers blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, bypassing the lungs Ductus Arteriosus
Pump oxygen-poor, waste-filled blood away from the fetus and towards the fetus Umbilical Ateries
Carries oxygenated blood away from the and placenta towards the fetus Umbilical Vein
A fine hair that covers the babys body Lanugo
The lanugo is covered by white cheese-like substances called Vernix Caseosa
Fetal movement is called Quickening
A lipid protein mixture that reduces alveolar surface tension Surfactant
Sampling of amniotic fluid Amniocentesis
A mother that is having her first baby is called Primipara
A mother having her second baby is called Multipara
The sequence of events occur during birth is called Labor
An unborn child, or another word for baby is Neonate
Neonates weighing less then 5.5lbs are considered Premature
the process of giving birth is called Parturition
These are sometimes known as false labor Braxton-Hicks Contractions
the progressive thinning of the cervical walls Effacement
the progressive widening of the cervix to the allow for passage of the fetus Dilation
the fetal membranes usually rupture during dilation, releasing amniotic fluid, this is often referred to as Water Breaking
when giving birth the first appearance of the top of the head is called Crowning
A surgical incision that is made between the vagina and the anus to enlarge the vaginal opening Episiotomy
when the baby is delivered butt first this is called a ______ birth Breech
delivery after the baby that includes the placenta, amnion, and other feral membranes After Birth
Following Childbirth, the mammary glands produce and secrete milk to nourish the neonate, this is called Lactation
High levels of _______ during pregnancy stimulate the growth of ducts throughout the mammary glands Estrogen
High levels of ________ stimulate the development of acini at the ends of the ducts Progeterone
A rich in protein and immunoglobulins that provide the neonate with passive immunity Colostrum
The anterior pituitary secretes _______, which initiates the production of milk Prolactin
The posterior pituitary secretes _______, that causes the lobules in the breast to contract , forcing milk into the ducts Oxytocin
pressure changes in the heart causes the foremen ovale to shut, while pressure changes in the pulmonary artery and aorta lead the collapse of the ductus arteriosus Cardiovascular
While most neonates begin breathing spontaneously, the first few breaths require considerable effort as they work to inflate the collapsed alveoli Respiratory
Neonate have weak ___________ at birth, placing them at risk for infection Immune System
Neonates risk becoming hypothermic because their surface area, in relationship to their size, is larger then in an adult is called Thermoregulation
Neonates require a fairly high fluid intake because their immature kidneys do not concentrate urine adequately is called Fluid Balance
The process of degeneration is called Senescence
Created by: Leci81
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