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Ch 10 & 11

The Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Nerve cells are AKA neurons
The axon is the portion of a neuron that carries impulses from one neuron to the next
The axon is surrounded by a protective lipoprotein called myelin sheaths
The myelin sheaths allow nerve impulses to travel at 200 miles/second
Unmyelinated nerve impulses travel at 0.5 meter/second
A degenerative nerve disease caused by a degradation of the myelin sheaths is called multiple sclerosis (MS).
CNS stands for central nervous system
The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord
The brain contains 100,000,000,000 neurons.
The PNS stands for peripheral nervous system
The PNS is made up of all the nerves except the brain and spinal cord
The PNS is made up of Sensory neurons AKA
The PNS is made up of Motor neurons AKA
Sensory neurons AKA afferent neurons.
Motor neurons AKA efferent neurons
Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit changes in the environment to the brain for interpretation
Changes in the environment are called stimuli.
Motor (efferent) neurons transmit commands from the brain to the muscles to facilitate movement
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are greatly influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter dopamine.
A disease caused by a deficiency of dopamine is called Parkinson’s disease (PD).
The ANS stands for autonomic nervous system.
The ANS is considered involuntary (reflex).
These reflexes include: coughing, choking, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting.
The ANS is subdivided into the Sympathetic division AKA “fight or flight reactions.”
The sympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter (chemical) called norepinephrine (NE) to transmit impulses.
The ANS is subdivided into the The parasympathetic division.
The parasympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (Ach) to transmit impulses.
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations (“rest and digest”) and includes: Digestive processes
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations (“rest and digest”) and includes: Reproductive processes
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations (“rest and digest”) and includes: Eupnea
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations (“rest and digest”) and includes: . Normal heart rate (HR).
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: Tachycardia.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: Tachypnea
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: Bronchodilation.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: Pupillary dilation
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (“fight or flight”) response are: Pallor
Pallor due to shunting of blood from the periphery to the large muscles of the arms and legs, brain, heart, and lungs.
The largest part of the brain is called the cerebrum
The outer portion of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex
The cerebrum is divided into right and left halves called hemispheres
These hemispheres are connected and communicate by the corpus callosum
Sections of the brain are called lobes
The frontal lobe controls: Voluntary muscle function
The frontal lobe controls: Moods
The frontal lobe controls: Aggression
The frontal lobe controls: Smell reception (olfactory).
The frontal lobe controls: Motivation
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: Touch
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: Pain
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: Balance
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: Taste
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as: Temperature
The temporal lobes evaluate: Hearing input
The temporal lobes evaluate: Smell
The temporal lobes evaluate: Memory
The temporal lobes evaluate: Judgment
The occipital lobe functions in receiving and interpreting visual input
Depression, migraines, anxiety, appetite, sexuality, and bipolar disorder are influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin
The second largest portion of the brain is called the cerebellum
The cerebellum is located at the posterior base of the brain
The cerebellum functions as a reflex center for coordination and balance
The brain stem consists of the: Medulla oblongata
The brain stem consists of the: Pons Varolii
The brain stem consists of the: Midbrain
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling: Consciousness and arousal
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling: Regulation of diameter of blood vessels (BP).
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling: Heart rate (HR).
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling: Ventilation (breathing).
The midbrain acts as the connection between the cerebrum and the spinal cord
The thalamus is the principal relay station for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex
The hypothalamus controls The pituitary gland
The hypothalamus controls Feelings of rage and aggression
The hypothalamus controls Body temperature
The hypothalamus controls Thirst
The hypothalamus controls Sleep
The hypothalamus controls Food intake (satiation).
The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata
The length of the spinal cord is approximately 16 -18 inches
The function of the spinal cord is to Convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain.
The function of the spinal cord is to Conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery.
Branching off the spinal cord are the 31 paired spinal nerves
Most spinal nerves exit the vertebral column between the adjacent vertebrae
Spinal nerves consist of: 8 cervical pairs.
Spinal nerves consist of: 12 thoracic pairs
Spinal nerves consist of: 5 lumbar pairs
Spinal nerves consist of: 5 sacral pairs.
Spinal nerves consist of: 1 coccygeal pair.
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by protective membranes called meninges.
The outermost meninx is called the dura mater (tough mother).
The middle meninx is called the arachnoid membrane (spider layer).
The innermost meninx is called the pia mater (delicate mother).
Between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane is the subdural space
The subdural space contains serous fluid
Between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space
The subarachnoid space contains CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).
CSF circulates around the brain and spinal cord through cavities called ventricles
The CSF serves as a shock absorber and circulates nutrients.
The white (opaque) portion of each eye is called the sclera
The transparent anterior portion of each sclera is called the cornea
The colored portion of each eye is called the iris
The highly vascular layer of each eye is called the choroid.
The os in the center of each iris is called a pupil.
A pupil that decreases in size is called pupillary constriction
A pupil that increases in size is called pupillary dilation
The crystalline structure located posterior to each pupil that focuses (accommodates) light on a retina is called the crystalline lens
The function of the retinae are to perceives light.
Each retina is made up of visual receptor cells called rods and cones
Each retina is an extension of an optic nerve
The optic nerves transmit visual impulses to the thalamus.
The thalamus relays these impulses to the occipital lobe for interpretation
The anterior compartment of each eye is filled with liquid called the aqueous humor
The posterior compartment of each eye is filled with liquid called the vitreous humor
The external cartilagenous flap of each ear is called a pinna AKA the auricle.
The tube leading from each pinna (auricle) to a tympanic membrane is called the external auditory canal.
A tympanic membrane is AKA “eardrum
Each external auditory canal is lined with modified sebaceous glands that produce cerumen AKA “earwax.”
Each middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the: Malleus (hammer).
Each middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the: . Incus (anvil).
Each middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the: Stapes (stirrup).
The tubes that connect the middle ears to the pharynx for pressure equalization are called the Eustachian tubes
The structure in each inner ear that is responsible for perceiving sound vibrations and conducting these vibrations to the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve is called the cochlea
The connection between a stapes and a cochlea is called the oval window
The structure in each inner ear which aids in balance (equilibrium) is called the labyrinth.
Each labyrinth is made up of the vestibule and semicircular canals
Created by: 1130905247