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A & P Ch 10+11

Central Nervous System

Nerve Cells are AKA Neurons
What part of the neuron carries impulses from one neuron to the next? Axon
What protective lipoprotein surrounds the axon and allows nerve impulses to travel 200 miles/second? Myelin Sheath
Multiple Sclerosis(MS) Degenerative nerve disease caused by a degradation of the myelin sheath
Central Nervous System(CNS)is made up of? Brain and Spinal Cord
The brain contains how many neurons? 100,000,000,000.
What system contains all the nerves of the body? Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
These two types of neurons make up the PNS Sensory and Motor
Sensory Neurons are AKA Afferent
These neurons transmit changes in the environment to the brain for interpretation Sensory(afferent)
What is stimuli? Changes in the environment
Motor Neurons are also called Efferent
What is the main job of Motor(efferent)neurons? Transmit commands from the brain to the muscles to facilitate movement
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are influenced by what chemical neurotransmitter? Dopamine
What is Parkinson's Disease(PD)? A disease caused by a deficiency of Dopamine
Nervous System which is considered involuntary(reflex)? Autonomic Nervous System(ANS)
Name the 5 involuntary reflexes of the Autonomic Nervous System Coughing,Choking,Sneezing,Swallowing, and Vomiting
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are what? Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
This division of the ANS is know as the "fight or flight reactions" Sympathetic Division
Norephinephrine(NE) Neurotransmitter that the Sympathetic Division of ANS relies on to transmit impulses
Parasympathetic Division Operates during normal non-stressful situations ("rest and digest")
Parasympathetic Division of ANS uses this neurotransmitter to send impulses Acetylcholine(Ach)
Parasympathetic Division is at work duing these non-stressful situations Digestive Processes,Reproductive Processes,Eupnea,Normal Heart Rate(HR)
Changes that occur during the "fight or fight" response are: Tachycardia,Tachypnea,Bronchodilation,Pupillarydilation,Pallor
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain
The outer portion of the cerebrum is know as the Cerebral Cortex
Corpus Callosum Connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain and allows them to communicate
Lobes Sections of the brain
Name the 4 lobes of the brain Frontal,Parietal,Temporal,Occipital
What does the frontal lobe control? Voluntary mucle function,Moods,Aggression,Smell reception(olfactory),Motivation
Sensory stimuli such as Touch,Pain,Balance,Taste,and Temperature are controlled by which lobe of the brain? Parietal Lobes
The temporal lobes control the following Hearing input,Smell,Memory,and Judgement
This lobe of the brain is responsible for receiving and interpreting visual input Occipital
Depression, migraines, anxiety,appetite, sexuality, and bipolar disorder are influenced by this neurotransmitter Serotonin
The second largest portion of the brain is known as? Cerebellum
Where is the cerebellum located? Posterior base of the brain
This part of the brain controls coordination and balance Cerebellum
The brain stem consists of these 3 structures Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain
Medulla and Pons control the following Consciousness and arousal Regulation of diameter of blood vessels(BP) Heart Rate(HR) Ventilation(breathing)
The Midbrain acts as a connection between these two structures Cerebrum and Spinal Cord
What structure is known as the "relay station" for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex? Thalamus
The Hypothalamus control what? Pituitary gland Feelings of rage and aggression Body Temperature Thirst Sleep Food intake(satiation)
The spinal cord begins as a continuation of what structure of the brain? medulla oblongata
How long is the spinal cord? Approx 16-18 inches
What are the functions of the spinal cord? 1. Send sensory(afferent)impulses from the periphery to the brain 2. Send motor(efferent)impulses from the brain to the periphery
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31(62 total nerves)
The spinal nerves branch off the spinal cord and exit the vertebral column between what? Adjacent vertebrae
Name the spinal nerve pairs and how many of each Cervical(8) Thoracic(12) Lumbar(5) Sacral(5) Coccygeal(1)
What are meninges? Protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal column
Name the 3 layers of the meninges Dura mater,Arachnoid membrane,Pia mater
What is the Arachnoid membrane? Middle layer of the meninges which cover the brain and spinal column
The outer most meninx is known as? dura mater(tough mother)
The innermost layer of meninges is called? Pia mater(delicate mother)
Name the space which is between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane that contains serous fluid Subdural(space)
What is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater? Subarachnoid(space)
Name the fluid contained in the subarachnoid space Cerebrospinal Fluid(CSF)
What are ventricles? Cavities which aid in circulating CSF around the brain and spinal column
The purpose of the Cerebrospinal Fluid? 1. Acts as a shock absorber 2. Circulates nutrients
What is the cornea? Transparent anterior portion of the sclera
Name of the colored portion of each eye Iris
What is the choroid? Highly vascular layer of the eye
The os in the center of each iris is known as? Pupil
Pupillary Constriction A pupil that decreases in size
Pupillary Dilation A pupil that increases in size
What is the crystalline structure located posterior to each pupil that accomodates light on a retina? Lens
What is the function of the retinae? To perceive light
Each retina is made up of what? Visual receptor cells called rods(black&white) and cones(color)
Each retina is an extension of what nerve? Optic
Optic nerves transmit visual impulses to? Thalamus
The thalamus sends impulses to which lobe of the brain for interpretation? Occipital lobe
What is Aqueous humor? Liquid contained in the anterior compartment of each eye
The liquid located in the posterior compartment of each eye is called? Vitreous humor
What is the pinna? External cartilagenous flap of each ear. AKA: auricle
Tube leading from each pinna(auricle)to a tympanic membrane is known as? External Auditory Canal
Tympanic Membrane is AKA? Eardrum
Cerumen(AKA-Earwax) is produced by modified sebaceous glands in what structure? External Auditory Canal
Name the three auditory bones of the middle ear 1. Malleus(hammer) 2. Incus(anvil) 3. Stapes(stirrup)
What do the Eustachian tubes connect? Middle ears to the Pharynx
What is the purpose of Eustchian tubes? Pressure equalization
The structure in each inner ear that perceives sound vibrations and conducts these vibrations to the auditory nerve? Cochlea
What is the Oval Window? Connection between the stapes and cochlea
Name the structure in the inner ear which aids in balance(equilibrium)? Labyrinth
The labyrinth is made up of what structures? 1. Vestibule 2. Semicircular canals
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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