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Gov Ch 3 blargha


Federalism the distribution of power in an organization (as a government) between a central authority and the constituent units
Unitary System a system of political organization in which most or all of the governing power resides in a centralized government. It contrasts with a federal system
Confederal System a system of government where the states are sovereign and the national gov can only do what the states permit
Division of Powers the principle that sovereignty should be divided between the federal government and the states esp. as expressed by the Constitution of the U.S.
Expressed Powers Powers that Congress has that are specifically listed in the Constitution.
Implied Powers Implied powers are powers not specifically spelled out in the Constitution, but which can deduced from the text. (Necessary and proper clause)
Necessary and Proper Clause To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the [enumerated] Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
Inherent Powers Powers held by a sovereign state. In the United States, the President derives these powers from the loosely-worded statements in the Constitution that "the executive Power shall be vested in a President"
Police Powers basic right of governments to make laws and regulations for the benefit of their communities. Under the system of government in the United States, only states have the right to make laws based on their police power
Concurrent Powers Concurrent Powers are powers shared by the federal and state governments. These powers include the ability to make laws, roads, defense, parks and enforcement for police, prisons, health, and environment
Supremacy Clause federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power
Secession The act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance; the withdrawal of a state from the federal union
Dual federalism A system of gov in which the federal and the state gov maintain diverse and sovereign powers
Cooperative Federalism a concept of federalism in which national, state and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately.
New Deal program of the administration of FDR between 1933 and 1939, which took action to bring about immediate economic relief as well as reforms in industry, agriculture, finance, waterpower, labour, and housing, increasing the scope of the federal government
Picket-Fence Federalism federalism in which policies and programs are administrated by all levels of gov, national, local, and state.
Preemption a doctrine in law according to which federal law supersedes state law when federal law is in conflict with a state law
New Federalism a plan, announced in 1969, to turn over the control of some federal programs to state and local governments and institute block grants, revenue sharing, etc.
Devolution transference (as of rights, powers, property, or responsibility) to another; especially : the surrender of powers to local authorities by a central government
Federal Mandate A federal law or act compelling State to take certain actions
Fiscal Federalism understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government
Categorical Grant Money given for a particular category, but no specific programs. Programs are up to the receiver.
Block Grant Money given with no specified category.
Competitive Federalism The states and government compete for leadership of the country's domestic policy. Much of the conflict is over unfunded mandates.