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Path 25 Skin


thick rough skin w prominent markings d/t repeated rubbing Lichenification
circumscribed, flat, colored Macule = 5 or less mm, Patch = >5mm
elevated, dome or flat topped Papule = 5 or less mm, Nodule = >5mm
elevated, flat topped, caused by coalescent papules, >5mm Plaque
pus filled, raised lesion Pustule
dry, horny, platelike excrescence d/t imperfect cornification Scale
fluid filled, raised Vesicle = 5 or less mm, Bulla = >5mm
itchy, transient, elevated w variable blanching and erythema, result of dermal edema Wheal
Loss of intercell cohesion b/w keratinocytes Acantholysis
diffuse epidermal hyperplasia Acanthosis
premature keratinization w/in cells below stratum granulosum Dyskeratosis
Discontinuity of skin w Incomplete loss of epidermis Erosion
Infiltration of epiderm by inflamm cells Exocytosis
Intracell Edema of keratinocytes (viral infx) Hydropic swelling (ballooning)
Hyperplasia of stratum granulosum d/t intense rubbing Hypergranulosis
Thickening of stratum corneum Hyperkeratosis
Linear pattern of melanocyte prolif w/in epiderm basal layer Lentiginous
surface elevation d/t hyperplasia and enlargement of contiguous Dermal Papillae Papillomatosis
Keratinization w Retained Nuclei in stratum corneum. Seen with Psoriasis. Normal on mucus membranes Parakeratosis
intercell Edema of Epiderm Spongiosis
Discontinuity of skin showing Complete loss of epiderm, reveal derm or subQ Ulceration
Formation of vacuoles w/in or adjacent to cells Vacuolization
common benign localized hyperplasia of melanocytes occurring at all ages, starting w infants. small, oval, tan-brown, macules or patches, don't darken in sun Lentigo
precursors of melanoma, larger than most acquired nevi. flat macules/slightly raised plaques w pebbly surface, or target-like lesion w darker raised center and irreg flat periph Dysplastic Nevi
>10mm and changes and color, size, shape of pigmented lesion, irreg/notched borders. Loss of func RB muts, and activating BRAF, and loss of p16/INK4a. resist chemo and radiation Melanoma
round, flat, coin-like, waxy plaques, tan/brown w velvety granular surface. small round, porelike ostia impacted w keratin. FGFR3 mut. Explosive appearance in large # = Leser-Trelat sign Seborrheic keratoses
thick, hyperpigmented skin w velvet like texture most commonly in the axillae, neck folds, groin and anogenital regions. Benign type = most cases, gradual starts during puberty. Malignant type = older people, w GI adnenocarcinomas Acanthosis Nigricans
skin tag, soft, flesh-color, bag-like tumor attached to surrounding skin by slender stalk. Fibroepithelial polyp
invagination and cystic expansion of epidermis or hair follicle. filled w keratin and lipid containing debris derived from sebaceous secretions. Moveable. Epithelial cyst (Wen)
nondescript flesh-colored solitary or multi papules and nodules on palms and soles Eccrine Poroma
nondescript flesh-colored solitary or multi papules and nodules on forehead and scalp. CYLD mut Cylindroma
multi, small, tan papules around lower eyelids Syringoma
<1cm, tan/brown/red/skin colored, rough/sandpaper. Cutaneous Horn. sun-exposed sites. Actinic Keratosis
deeply invasive and involve subQ, not through basement memb = in situ (sharply defined, red, scaling plaques); more advanced invasion = (nodular, hyperkeratotic scale, may ulcerate. Squamous cell carcinoma
most common invasive cancer. slow growing, rarely metastasize. sun exposed sites of lightly pigmented people. pearly papuples containing prominent, dilated subepidermal blood vessels(telangectasias). Basal cell carcinoma - Gorlin synd (Nevoid basal cell carcinoma)= multiple basal cell carcinomas. PTCH gene.
on legs of young women, firm, tan/brown papules, <1cm, tendency to Dimple inward on lateral compression Dermatofibroma
firm, solid nodules, most freq on the trunk. fibroblasts arranged radially (pin wheel, storiform). Deep extension from dermis into subQ fat->"honeycomb" pattern. translocation b/w COL1A1 and PDGFB. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
>40 y/o, on the trunk- scaly, red/brown patches; raised, scaly plaques; fungating nodules. can -> Sezary synd (diffuse erythema/scaling of entire body surface). Sezary-Lutzner cells=CD4+ that form bandlike aggregates w/in superfic derm and invade epiderm Mycosis Fungoides (Cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma)
increased mast cells in skin of kids. accounts for most urticaria pigmentosa (lesions multiple and widely distributed, round/oval, red/brown, nonscaling papules and small plaques. Darier sign=dermal edema and erythema(wheal) when skin is rubbed. Mastocytosis
hyperkeratosis->fish-like scales. loss of normal basket weave pattern Ichthyosis
localized mast cell degranulation->dermal microvasc hyperpermeability->pruritic edematous plaques (wheals). angioedema w dilation of superficial lymph channels. Urticaria (Hives)
red, papulovesicular, oozing, and crusted lesions->raised, scaling plaques d/t reactive acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. can be d/t poison ivy. Acute Eczematous Dermatitis
hypersensitivity rxn to infx (herpes, mycoplasma, histoplasmosis, typhoid, leprosy), drugs (sufonamides, penicillin, antimalarials), malignancies, collagen diseases (SLE, PAN). present w red macule/papule w pale center. symm extremeties. Erythema Multiforme - Stevens-Johnson synd=extensive, symptomatic febrile form often in kids
chronic inflamm dermatosis sometimes ass w arthritis, AIDS, trauma (Koebner). on skin of elbows, knees, scalp, lumbosacral, interglut, glans penis. well demarcated, pink plaque, silver scale. thin/absent strat gran w overlying parakeratotic scale. HLA-C Psoriasis
chronic inflamm dermatosis of scalp, forehead (glabella), ext auditory canal, nasolabial folds, presternal, but NOT a sebaceous gland disease. macules/papules on yellow, greasy base, scaly and crusty. Seborrheic Dermatitis (Dandruff) - cradle cap for infants - + diarrhea and failure to thrive = Leiner disease
Pruritic, purple, polygonal, planar papules/plaques. resolves 1-2 yrs leaving postinflamm hyperpigment. highlighted by white dots or lines (Wickham striae). symm extremities (wrist/elbow and penis) Lichen Planus
d/t IgG autoantibods against desmogleins->dissolution of intercell attachments w/in epiderm and mucosal epithel. scalp, face, axilla, groin, trunk, points of pressure. superfic vesicles/bullae rupture (acantholytic)->shallow erosions covered by crust. Pemphigus
elderly. tense bullae (dont rupture easy) filled w clear fluid on normal or erythematous skin. inner thigh, flexor forearms, axillae, groin, lower ab. subepiderm, nonacantholytic. linear deposits of IgG/complement in base memb d/t BPAG2 antibods. Bullous Pemphigoid
urticaria and grouped vesicles. ass w celiac. IgA antibods to gluten cross-react w reticulin->subepidermal blister. very itchy elbows, knees, upper back, butt. Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Open comedones=small follicular papules w a central black keratin plug. Closed comedones= follicular papules w/o visible central plug. d/t keratin plug blocking sebum outflow, puberty->hypertroph sebaceous glands, bacteria, inflamm follicle. Acne Vulgaris
flushing episodes, persistent erythema and telangectasia, pustules and papules, permanent thick nasal skin (rhinophyma). high cutaneous lvl of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin Rosacea
ass w Strep B/tuberculosis. poorly defined, very tender, red plaques/nodules, better palpated than visualized. become bruiselike Erythema Nodosum
primary vasculitis affecting deep vessels supplying lobules of subQ w caseous necrosis and inflamm w/in the fat. red, slightly tender nodule that ulcerates Erythema Induratum
relapsing febrile nodular panniculitis. crops of red plaques/nodules on LEs d/t deep foci of inflamm w foamy histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells Weber-Christian disease
d/t HPV. dorsal hands. gray/white/tan, flat/convex, rough (pebble) surface. HPV 6 and 11->anogenital warts. HPV 16->in situ squamous cell CA of genitals and bowenoid papulosis. Verrucae (Warts) - vulgaris is most common - plana are flat and smaller
d/t poxvirus (brick shaped w dumbbell DNA). multi lesions on skin and mucous mems (trunk and anogenitals). firm, itchy, pink, umbilicated papules w curdlike matter expressed from central umbilication. Molluscum Contagiosum
Created by: Jakphooey