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Clinical Correlation

Head and Neck (Kaplan)

Middle meningeal artery enters the skull through Foramen spinosum
Laceration to middle meningeal artery results to Epidural hematoma
Failure of a cleft in pharyngeal grooves to be completely obliterated results in Brachial cyst or lateral cervical cyst
Cleft lip occurs when Maxillary prominence fails to fuse with medial nasal prominence
It results when the palatine shelves fail to fuse with each other or the primary palate Cleft palate
Presents with a triad of poor mandibular fold, cleft palate and posteriorly placed tongue Robin sequence
It also presents with mandibular hypoplasia, zygomatic hypoplasia, down slanted palpebral fissures, colobomas and malformed ears Treacher Collins syndrome
First arch syndrome consist of Treacher collins syndrome and Pierre robin sequence
Occurs when pouch 2 and groove 2 persist, thereby forming a fistula generally found along the anterior border of SCM Pharyngeal fistula
Occurs when pharyngeal grooves that are normally obliterated persist, forming a cyst usually located at mandible Pharyngeal cyst
Occurs when pharyngeal pouches 3 and 4 fail to differentiate into the parathyroid glands and thymus DiGeorge sequence
Cribriform plate fracture may result in Dysosmia and CSF rhinorrhea
May be caused by a tumor pressing on CN IX, X, XI Jugular foramen syndrome
This CN is affected first in a cavernous sinus thrombosis or by an aneurysm of internal carotid artery with other nerves affected later CN VI
Typical presentation associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage Onset of severe headache
Results from a rupture of a berry aneurysm in Circle of Willis Subarachnoid hematoma
Common site of subarachnoid hematoma Anterior part of Subarachnoid hematoma
Results from head trauma that tears superficial "bridging" cerebral veins at the point where they enter the superior sagittal sinus Subdural hematoma
Results from trauma to the lateral aspect of skull which lacerate the middle meningeal artery Epidural hematoma
Achieves refraction with no refractive error Emmetropic cornea
A flat cornea has too little refractive power and focuses an object behind the retina resulting in Hyperopia or farsightedness
A round cornea have too much refractive power, focusing an object in front of retina resulting in Myopia or nearsightedness
An irregularly shaped cornea forms distorted images known as Astigmatism
Results from a blockage or restriction of aqueous drainage into canals of Schlemm Glaucoma
Over time the lens becomes less elastic reducing the ability to focus on near objects a condition known as Presbyopia
The lens like the cornea can develop opacities known as Cataracts
Lesion to this nerve result in deviation upon protrusion of the tongue towards the side of injured nerve combined with fasciculations and atrophy CN XII
Characterized by episodes of sharp stabbing pain that radiates over the territory of branches of trigeminal nerve Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
Location of pain in Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) Mandibular or maxillary branch of CN V
Lesion of this nerve result in drooping of the palate ipsilateral to the injured nerve and a deviation of uvula to opposite side CN X
What recurrent laryngeal nerve is commonly injured Left
Created by: analyncosim