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Maternity Chapter 12

Conception and fetal development

Conception defined as a single union of a sperm and egg
oogenesis the process of egg formation
True or False: High estrogen support motility of the uterine tube cilia to propel ovum True
fertilization takes place where: in the ampulla of the uterine tube (outer third)
morula ball of 16-cell three days after formation of zygote
blastocyst formed after the morula
6-10 days after conception trophoblast secretes enzymes that allows it to implant into the uterus
chorionic villi projections that extend from the trophoblast into the endometrium for gaz exchange
decidua endometrium is call this after implantation
decidua basalis, vera, and capsularis base, middle and outer parts of the decidua in relation to the trophoblast
Lenght of pregnancy 10 lunar months, 9 calendar months, 40 weeks, or 280 day
Stages of intrauterine development ovum or preembryonic, embryo, and fetus
ovum or preembryonic stage This period covers cellular replication, The first two weeks of after conceptions. Blastocyst formation, initial development of the embryonic membranes, and establishment of the primary germ layers.
Primary Germ Layers the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm (or entoderm)
embryonic stage 2 weeks to 8 weeks embryo measures 3cm critical time of development for inner and outer organs embryo vulnerable to teratogens
oligohydramnios less than 300ml of amniotic fluid associated with fetal renal abnormalities
hydramnios more than 2L of amniotic fluid associated with GI and other malformations
content of amniotic fluid albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, lecithin, sphingomyelin, bilirubin, fructose, fat, leukocytes, proteins, epithelial cells, enzymes, and lanugo hair
yolk sac plays a role in rbc formation during the embryonic stage (gone by week 6)
umbilical cord is comprised of: two arteries and one vein
Wharton's jelly connective tissue that prevents compression of the umbilical blood vessels to ensure nourishment to the fetus
battledore placenta peripheral location of the umbilical cord
embryonic heart starts beating when: 17 days after conception
syncytium functional layer of the placenta
hCG detected after implantation
Fetal glucose needs a lot higher glucose circulates through the umbilical cord
Fetal maturation (FETAL STAGE) From week 9 to end of pregnancy
Problems during fetal stage fetus is vulnerable to teratogens affecting cns functioning
Viability Ability of the fetus to survive threshold is 22-25 weeks
first organ system to function in the fetus the cardiovascular system heart beat by the end of the third week 4 to 5th week - development of the 4 chambers by the 8th week, the heart is complete
ductus arteriosus bypasses the lungs in the fetus
ductus venosus bypasses the liver and flows into the inferior vena cava
foramen ovale opening into the left atrium fetal blood flows directly from right to left atrium
three special characteristics that enable the fetus to obtain sufficient oxygen from the maternal blood are: •Fetal hemoglobin carries 20% to 30% more oxygen •The hemoglobin concentration of the fetus is about 50% greater •The fetal heart rate is 110 to 160 beats/min, making the cardiac output per unit of body weight higher than that of an adult.
Hematopoises in the fetus begins the 6th week in the fetal liver Rh negative mother is then at risk
Meckel's diverticulum the most common malformation of the midgut, occurs when a remnant of the yolk stalk that has failed to degenerate attaches to the ileum, leaving a blind sac.
Anorectal malformations the most common abnormalities of the digestive system.
meconium dark green to black, tarry fetal waste passed within 24h after birth
storage of glycogen begins at what time in the fetus? week 9 glycogen is 2x that of adults at birth
When does brown fat begins accumulating? Between 26 and 30 weeks the fetus begins to lay down stores of brown fat in preparation for extrauterine cold stress.
bile begins forming at what time? the 12th week bile is found is meconium
hyperbilirubinemia liver of fetus does not need to remove biluribin At birth, this function is needed, and the lack can cause an accumulation of bilurubin or hyperbilirubinemia
coagulation factors not synthesized by fetus an injection is given to the newborn
development of the respiratory tract in fetus week 4 to week 17 with formation of the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi, and the lung buds. week 16-24: enlargement of bronchi or formation of vessels week 24-term: type 1 and 2 cells form to secrete surfactant
L/S ratio (Lecithin/Sphingomyelin) is used to determine what: an L/S ratio of 2:1 signifies a mature lung this occurs at 35 weeks of gestation
Conditions that can retard lung maturity include: gestational diabetes and chronic glomerulonephritis intrabronchial synthetic surfactant can be used to improve an affected newborn's chance of survival
C-Section and breathing: Fluid is left in the newborn's lung, but reabsorbed within 2hours into circulation
Kidney formation takes place when: The 5th week, but begin function in the 9th week
Kidney malformation indicated by oligohydromnios kidney begin function right after birth Infant at risk for dehydration b/c the GFR is low at birth (glomerula filtration rate)
when can brain waves be recorded? by week 8
quickening perception of fetal movement by week 16-20 occurs earlier in multipara than in primapara
Sensory awareness in fetus response to sound in by week 24 distinguish taste by the 5 month (20week) at term, fetus brain is 1/4 adult brain
sex differentiation starts when: after week 7
tested descend into scrotum when: by week 28
Fontanels Areas where more than two bones meet
vernix caseosa white cheesy material that protects the skin of the fetus the vernix is thick by 24 weeks, but scanty at term
Lanugo Very fine hair that appear first at 12 week on eyebrow and upperlips, and cover the entire body by week 20
immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta: immunoglobulin G
immonoglobulin produced bt the fetus by the end of the third trimester IgM breast milk can give newborn some IgA
Dizygotic twins two ovum fertilized leading to two placentas
Monozygotic twins divided fertilized egg
Created by: ekm



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