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Inner Ear

Audiology PowerPoint 7

QuestionAnswer
Name the two sensory organs located in the inner ear. The vestibule and the cochlea.
Vestibule is the organ of balance
Cochlea is the organ of hearing
Name the main fluid that fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani of the cochlea. Perilymph
Round window membrane next to the oval window, allows the stapes to displace the perilymph so that vibrations can enter and exit the cochlea back into the middle ear.
Name the two main compartments that make up the cochlea. The scala vestibuli (ascending) and the scala tympani (descending)
Name the point where the two compartments meet The helicotrema
Name the third compartment of the cochlea. The scala media, or the cochlear duct
Name the fluid that fills the scala media. Endolymph
Endolymph Fluid that fills the scala media. Is unlike any other extracellular fluid in that it is rich in K+, or potassium.
What separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli? Reissner's membrane
What separates the scala media from the scala tympani? Basilar membrane
Organ of Corti Specialized structure located on the basilar membrane. As the basilar membrane vibrates, the organ of Corti is stimulated.
Basically, what is the transduction process? The conversion of sound waves into electrical impulses (action potential) to be carried to the CNS
Cochlear nerve Collection of all the fibers coming from the organ of Corti that runs down the middle of the cochlea.
Stria vascularis filled with tiny blood vessels carrying oxygen, which is used to generate the energy needed to force endolymph to be rich in potassium
Specifically, describe mechano-electric transduction this occurs when stereocilia bundle deflection stretches tip links which open ion channels in the stereocilia membrane, causing glutamate to release onto the cochlear nerve.
Describe the rows of hair cells in the cochlea Three outer hair cell rows, one inner hair cell row, located on the organ of Corti
Tectorial membrane structure that closely covers the hair cells--when basilar membrane vibrates, stereocilia are bent against the tectorial membrane, causing them to release a chemical that triggers action potential in the auditory nerve.
How is stereocilia arranged? Stereocilia arrangement is asymmetrical and polarized--arranged in rows of short, intermediate, and tall stereocilia.
Lateral links hold stereocilia together to form a bundle that moves as one.
Tip links links stereocilia tip to tip--responsible for the transduction of sound
Where will sounds of high frequency displace? mostly the base
Where will sounds of low frequency displace? mostly the apex
Tonotopic organization one frequency is coded at one particular place along the basilar membrane (the whole membrane is moving but there is one point where the displacement is at a maximum)
Glutamate a neurotransmiter that is released onto the cochlear nerve during transduction.
Prestin the molecular motor that drives outer hair cell electromotility--when OHC is displaced, conformational changes in prestin shorten and elongate the outer hair cell, leading to amplified movement of the basilar membrane.
spiral ganglion cell bodies of auditory nerve fibers that reach the organ of Corti
supporting cells that hold the sensory hair cells Deiter’s cells and Hensen’s cells
pillar cells close to OHCs is the outer piller, close to the IHC is the inner pillar
Stereocilia of the outer hair cells looks like a: v
Created by: 100000299709410