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UKCD Upper Limb

learning objectives for the upper limb

QuestionAnswer
Name the two major superficial veins of the upper limb. The cephalic and basilic vv.
Both these superficial veins originate distally at what structure? They originate at the dorsal venous network (arch) of the hand.
These superficial veins communicate again in the cubital fossa via what structure? The median cubital v.
Name the muscles that arise from the vertebral column and connect the upper limb tothe trunk. The trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboideus major and minor and the latissimus dorsi.
Which of these muscles is not innervated by a branch off the brachial plexus? The trapezius (CN XI - spinal accessory n.).
Name the muscles arising from the thoracic wall that connect the upper limb to thetrunk. The pectoralis major and minor, serratus anterior, subclavius, and the sternocleidomastoid.
Which of these muscles connecting the thoracic wall to the upper limb is located deepest? The serratus anterior.
For what two nerves is the pectoralis minor a landmark? The medial and lateral pectoral nn.
Why is the nomenclature of these nerves reversed with regard to the anatomicallocation? Their nomenclature is NOT related to their relationship to the pectoralis minor but rather to the cord from which they arise off the brachial plexus.
Name the muscles of the scapular region. The subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and teres major.
Which of the muscles of the scapular region is not a rotator cuff muscle? The teres major is not a rotator cuff muscle.
What is the function of the rotator cuff? They apply the head of the humerus to the shallow glenoid cavity of the glenohumeral joint.
Which aspect of the shoulder joint is not reinforced by these muscles and what is the clinical significance of this? The inferior aspect. Shoulder dislocation occurs inferiorly and then pops up anteriorly.
What structures pass through the quadrangular space? The axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex artery.
What structures pass through the triangular space? The radial nerve and the profunda (deep) brachial artery.
Which muscles form the various walls of the axilla; medial, anterior, and posterior. Medial: serratus anterior and intercostal mm.; anterior: pectoralis major, minor and the subclavius; posterior: subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi.
At what anatomical landmark does the subclavian artery become the axillary artery? The lateral edge of the first rib.
What anatomical structure serves as a landmark to define the three divisions of the axillary artery? The pectoralis minor m.
Name the branches off each of the three parts of the axillary artery. First part: superior thoracic a.; second part: thoracoacromial a. and lateral thoracic a.; third part: subscapular a., anterior and posterior circumflex humeral aa.
At what anatomical landmark does the axillary artery become the brachial artery? The lower border of the teres major m.
The arm consists of two distinct compartments. Name them. The flexor (anterior) compartment and the extensor (posterior) compartment.
What two fascial structures define these two compartments? The lateral and medial intermuscular septae.
What type of action does Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis perform? What are they innervated by? are flexors and are innervated by the musculocutaneous n.; What type of action does the triceps brachii perform? What is it innervated by?
In the flexor compartment of the arm which muscles cross the elbow joint? The biceps brachii and the brachialis.
How does this attachment affect the action of these muscles? In addition to flexing the elbow, the biceps is a powerful supinator.
How does the brachial artery terminate? The radial and ulnar aa.
Where does this termination occur with relation to the cubital fossa? The bifurcation occurs deep to the bicipital aponeurosis but superficial to the tendon of the biceps brachii.
Name the two muscles that form the lateral and medial boundaries of the cubital fossa. Lateral = brachioradialis; medial = pronator teres.
Which of the three major nerves found passing from the arm into the forearm is not found within the cubital fossa? The ulnar n.
Which muscles are found in the superficial group within the flexor compartment? Lateral to medial: Pronator teres, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis and Flexor Carpi Ulnaris.
Of these five muscles which is not innervated by the median nerve? The flexor carpi ulnaris is innervated by the ulnar n.
Name the muscles of the deep group of the flexor compartment. Lateral to medial: Flexor Pollicis Longus, Flexor Digitorum Profundus and Pronator Quadratus.
What is the innervation of each of these muscles in this compartment? Flexor pollicis longus and pronator quadratus = anterior interosseus br. of median n.; the digitorum profundus has a dual innervation: medial portion = ulnar n., lateral portion = anterior interosseous br. of median n.
Which muscle is located most medial? Flexor digitorum profundus.
Name the muscles in the superficial group of the extensor compartment. Brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris.
What is the innervation of the Brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus? radial n.;
What is the innervation of the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris? posterior interosseus (deep) br. of the radial n.
Name the muscles of the deep group of the extensor compartment. Anconeus, supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis.
What is the innervation of the anconeus? radial n.
What innervates all of the extensor compartment but the anconeus? all the others innervated by the posterior interosseous (deep) br. of the radial n.
Which vessel passes into the extensor compartment to supply the muscles? The posterior interosseous artery.
What other artery pierces the interosseous membrane to assist in supplying thesemuscles. The anterior interosseous artery.
The dorsal carpal arch arises from which artery on the dorsal surface? The anterior interosseous artery which has fused with the posterior interosseous artery just before this.
This artery passes through what anatomical region at the base of the thumb and then passes to the palmar surface to contribute to the formation of which arterial arch? The anatomical snuff box; forms the deep palmer arch.
What structure forms the roof of the carpal tunnel? The flexor retinaculum.
Which nerve is irritated in carpal tunnel syndrome? The median nerve.
Which nerve(s) supply the thenar muscles? List the three muscles in this group The (recurrent br.) of the median nerve. Abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis.
Which nerve(s) supply the hypothenar muscles? List the muscle sin this group. The (deep br.) of the ulnar nerve. Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, and opponens digiti minimi.
Which artery is responsible for forming the majority of the superficial palmar arch? The superficial palmar arch arises from the ulnar artery.
Which artery is responsible for forming the majority of the deep palmar arch? The deep palmar arch arises from the radial artery.
All Superficial flexor compartment of forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris is innervated by? median nerve, FCU innervated by the ulnar nerve
The Flexor digitorum profundus is innervated by? BOTH the ulnar and median nn.
All intrinsic muscles of the hand except the lateral two (1 & 2) lumbricals are innervated by? the ulnar nerve. Theses two are innervated by the median n.
Created by: wiechartm