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UKCD Brachial Plexus

learning objectives for brachial plexus

QuestionAnswer
Which component of the spinal nerve is responsible for the formation of a plexus (ie. brachial plexus)? The ventral ramus
What happens to the dorsal rami of these spinal nn.? They remain segmental (dorsal rami always remain segmental).
List the four plexuses (or three if 3 and 4 are considered a singular plexus) that arisefrom the spinal cord. 1. Cervical plexus; 2. Brachial plexus; 3. Lumbar plexus; and 4. Sacral plexus. (Lumbosacral plexus if singular)
Give the root values for each of these 3(4) plexuses. Cervical: C1-C4. Brachial: C5-T1. Lumbar plexus: T12/L1-L4. Sacral plexus: L5-S5.
Identify the anatomical region where you would find the following portions of thebrachial plexus: roots, trunks, divisions, and cords. Roots: prevertebral musculature. Trunks: posterior triangle. Divisions: behind clavicle. Cords: in axilla.
Which division of a spinal nerve forms the roots of the brachial plexus. The ventral rami.
List the three trunks of the brachial plexus. Superior, inferior and middle trunks.
How are the trunks of the brachial plexus formed? The roots fuse to form trunks.
List the various trunks and what forms each one. The roots of C5 and C6 unite to form the superior trunk; the root of C7 continues to become the middle trunk; and the lower two roots (C8 and T1) unite to form the inferior trunk.
How do these trunks get their anatomical names? They are named for their anatomical relationship to one another.
How does each trunk terminate? Each trunk terminates by dividing into an anterior and posterior division.
How is each of the cords of the brachial plexus formed? The posterior cord is formed by the fusion of all 3 posterior divisions; the lateral cord is formed by the fusion of the upper two anterior divisions; the medial cord forms from the remaining anterior division from the lower trunk.
How are the cords of the plexus named? For their relationship to the axillary artery.
List the branches off the roots of the brachial plexus and what each innervates. Branches from the roots: dorsal subscapular n. (C5): levator scapulae, rhomboideus major and minor; long thoracic n. (C5,6,7): serratus anterior.
Which of the three trunks exhibits branches? Only the upper trunk gives rise to branches.
Name the branches of this/these trunk(s) and what they innervate. Branches from the upper trunk: suprascapular n. (C5,6): supraspinatus and infraspinatus mm.; n. to the subclavius (C5,6): subclavius m.
Name the three branches from the lateral cord and indicate what they innervate. lateral pectoral n. (C5,6,7): pectoralis major m.; musculocutaneous n. (C5,6,7): motor to the muscles of the flexor compartment of the arm (and sensory to lateral aspect of the forearm); lateral root of the medial nerve (C6,7): joins to form the median n.
Name the branches of the posterior cord upper and lower subscapular nn., thoracodorsal n.; axillary n.; radial nerve
What does the upper and lower subscapular nn innervate? (C5,C6): subscapularis and teres major mm.
What does the axillary n. innervate? (C5,6): deltoid and teres minor mm. + lateral cutaneous innervation of arm.
What does the radial nerve innverate? C5-8,T1): in axilla gives branches to the triceps brachii and anconeus, passes into forearm - it is the terminal branch of the posterior cord.
What three nerves form the M over the surface of the axillary artery? Musculocutaneous, median and ulnar nn.
What is the relationship of the axillary vein to the axillary artery? The axillary v. is superficial (inferiorly) to the axillary artery.
What is the relationship of the median nerve to the axillary artery? The median nerve lies superficial (anteriorly) to the axillary artery.
What is the relationship of the radial nerve to the axillary artery? The radial nerve lies posterior to the axillary artery.
Name the branches of the medial cord cord. medial pectoral n. medial cutaneous n. of the arm & medial cutaneous n. of forearm; medial root of median nerve joined by lateral cord to form median, ulnar nerve
WHat does the medial pectoral n innervate? medial pectoral n. (C8,T1): pectoralis minor m.
What is sensory to the forearm? medial root of median nerve (C8,T1)
What is the motor innervation of the forearm? median nerve joined by lateral cord to form median which is motor to mm. of the forearm
What does the ulnar n innervate? (C8,T1): supplies mm. and skin of the forearm (terminal br. of medial cord).
Created by: wiechartm
 

 



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