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learning objectives for autonomic nervous system

What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system? The sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
What are the general functions of the ANS divisions? Sympathetic is generally stimulatory; parasympathetic is generally inhibitory.
What is meant by a two neuron system of the ANS? It takes two neurons to link the target organ to the CNS.
How is this two neuron system constructed? A preganglionic fiber leaves the CNS and extends to a ganglion where it synapses on the cell body of the postganglionic neuron. The postganglionic fiber extends from the ganglion to the target.
Where are the neuron cell bodies of origin for the each division of the ANS located? Sympathetic = intermediolateral gray horn of spinal levels T1-L2; Parasympathetic = brain stem and spinal levels S2-S4.
What are the anatomical-based names for each division? Sympathetic = thoracolumbar; Parasympathetic = craniosacral.
Which 2 of the 3 types of autonomic ganglia are associated with the sympatheticsynapse in the ANS. Sympathetic fibers synapse in the paravertebral (sympathetic trunk) and prevertebral (collateral) autonomic ganglia.
Which is strictly involved in the parasympathetic synapse? The intramural (terminal) autonomic ganglion.
Where is paravertebral found? in a chain along either side of the vertebral column
Where is prevertebral found? anterior to the vertebral column at the base of the 3 main abdominal arteries arising from the aorta
Where is intramural found? within the wall of the target organ.
Understand the functional arrangement of the fibers within the sympathetic NS. The body wall (somatic division of the body) can only be supplied by postganglionic sympathetic innervation. The preganglionic fibers leaving the CNS via the ventral root must find an ANS ganglion in which to synapse prior to innervating the body wall.
What is the function of the sympathetic trunk? provides site for pre/postganglionic synapse for sympathetic innervation to body wall & distributes sympathetic innervation above T1 and below L2 (where there are no sympathetic neuron cell bodies) bc entire body wall must receive sympathetic innervation.
How do white and gray rami communicans differ? White rami contain preganglionic sympathetic fibers (and visceral afferent fibers) both of which are myelinated (myelin = lipid = white); gray rami contain postganglionic sympathetic fibers (no myelin = unmyelinated = no lipid = gray).
What is the function of white ramus communicans? convey myelinated preganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve to the paravertebral (sympathetic) ganglion
What is the function of The gray ramus? conveys the unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ganglion back to the ventral ramus for distribution through the dorsal and ventral rami to supply the entire dermatome with sympathetic innervation.
Which rami are more numerous and why? Gray are more numerous & output from sympathetic trunk to all levels along sympathetic trunk (C1 to Co4) bc innervates body wall White only present at vertebral levels where there is sympathetic input to sympathetic trunk (T1-L2)
What is a splanchnic nerve? A fiber that arises from the sympathetic trunk and passes medially to a prevertebral ganglion.
What fiber types does a splanchnic nerve contain? Primarily preganglionic sympathetic fibers destined for the viscera.
List the autonomic ganglia of the head associated with the parasympathetic division of the ANS. Ciliary, submandibular, pterygopalatine, and otic autonomic ganglia. Only parasympathetic fibers synapse here.
With which cranial nerve is each associated? Ciliary ganglion: CN III (oculomotor n.); submandibular ganglion: CN VII (facial n.); pterygopalatine ganglion: CN VII (facial n.); and otic ganglion: CN IX (glossopharyngeal n.)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for the majority of the parasympathetic supply tothe viscera of the thorax and abdomen? CN X (the vagus nerve).
Which ganglion type is involved in the parasympathetic innervation of the thorax andabdomen? Intramural (terminal) parasympathetic ganglia.
How far distal does its innervation extend into the abdomen? The vagus nerve supplies parasympathetic innervation through the abdomen as far distally as the mid transverse colon.
What takes over once the vagal innervation terminates? From the mid transverse colon down into the pelvis, parasympathetic innervation arises from S2- S4.
Generalize the differences between the two divisions of the ANS: origin, fiber lengths, and ganglia used for synapse. Origin: sympathetic = T1-L2; parasympathetic = brain stem & S2-S4.
Name the 3 prevertebral ganglia of the abdomen. Celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric.
Which fibers of the ANS synapse here? Preganglionic sympathetic fibers synapse here, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers pass through these ganglia to synapse in the intramural ganglia of the target organ(s).
Generalize the differences between the two divisions of the ANS: fiber lengths Fiber lengths: sympathetic = short preganglionics and long postganglionics; parasympathetic = long preganglionics and short postganglionics.
Generalize the differences between the two divisions of the ANS: ganglia used for synapse. ANS ganglia used for synapse: sympathetic = paravertebral and prevertebral; parasympathetic =- intramural/terminal.
Created by: wiechartm



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