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Bio 201 Review 1

What are the major 4 elements in the body? Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen
What percent of the body is Oxygen? 65
What percent of the body is Nitrogen? 10.5
What percent of the body is Carbon? 45
What percent of the body is Hydrogen? 9.5
Protons are equal to what? atomic weight
What else are protons equal to? Neutrons
What is a half life? Amount of time it takes any given substance to divide its mass in half
What is an ionic bond? a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion.
What is a covalent bond? a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion.
What is stronger than a covalent bond? Sodium
What is polarity? Electric negativity
Which of these bonds are polar? C-Br
WHich of these are nonpolar? C-C; C-H
What does it mean if it polar? Dissolves in water
What is hydrophilic? Soluble in water
What is hydrophobic? Wont dissolve in water
Antiphatic Any molecule characteristic that is both hydrophobic and hydrophillic
Dehydration synthesis Makes things
Glucose Broken down glucagon for later use for energy
Hydrolysis Breaks things down
What does the body use for main energy? Glucose; ATP
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine trphosphate
What does ATP do? Keeps the cell moving and gives it power
What is collagen? Most abundant protein in the body.
What is the plasma membrane? Phospholipid bilayer; has polar heads and non polar tails
What is fat soluble? dissolves in fat
Are steriods fat based? Yes
what does the nucleus do? control center of the brain
What is transcription? process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
What is translation? process by which a protein is synthesized from the information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA)
What is central dogma? The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. It states that information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.
Where are ribosomes located? Cytosol and Rough ER
What is the start codon for RNA AUG
What does tRNA do? Transfers amino acids
What are the RNA stop codons? UAA; UAG; UGA
Can cells be huge? Nope. Surface area is related to volume
What is the cytoskeleton? Holds this together
What is the function of the smooth ER? Detoxification
Where are lysosomes and peroxisomes located? Smooth Er
What is phagocytosis? Eats cells
What do peroxisomes do? Digest perxiode
What do lysosomes do? Eats worn out organelles
What does the Golgi Apparatus do? Stores things in vesicles; ships them out
Do we carry eukaryotic or prokaryotic? eukaryotic
Do prokaryotics have a nucleus? Nope.
What does the mitochondria do? Produces ATP
Does the mitochondria have its own DNA sequence? Yes.
Are plants eukaryotes? Yes.
Does chloroplast have its own DNA? Yes
What makes a nucleotide? Sugar, adenosine, phosphate
What are the nitrogenous bases that makes up the DNA sequence? ATCG
Is Uracil used in DNA? No, RNA
What is diffusion? is the process of passively(without loss of energy) movement of any substance from higher concentration to the lower concentration of that substance.
What is simple diffusion? is the net movement of substances from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration so its simple diffusion does not require energy therefore it is 'passive', substances are diffused across the membrane between the phospholipids.
What is facilitated diffusion? Uses protein for high to low
What is a concentration gradient? A concentration gradient is when there is an uneven distribution of a substance across a border.
Does active transport require energy? Yes.
What is cilia? Moves and circulates things
What is the importance of mucus? Traps parrticles
What is endocytosis? entering the cell
What is exocytosis? Exiting the cell
What is Transcytosis? Both endocytosis and exocytosis
What does Adenosine match up with? Thymine
What does cytosine match up with? Guanine
In RNA, what does Adenosine match up with? Uracil
What are the different RNA's? tRNA,smRNA, mRNA
Where does transcription occur? Nucleus
What is helicase? DNA polymearse
Where does translation occur? Ribosomes
What is Gyrase? RNA polymearse
What brings an amino acid into the ribosome? tRNA
What contains the genetic code? mRNA
What is a codon? A sequence of three nucleotide which together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
What brings the anti codon? tRNA
What is an anti codon? A sequence of three nucleic acid bases on transfer RNA molecules which recognizes and binds to three corresponding bases (called a codon) of messenger RNA.
What is an Allele? One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
What is an dominant allele? an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
What is a recessive allele? an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different.an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical.
What is an structures nucleotide? Base nitrogen, bonded to carbon, sugar ribose, phosphate.
What is a dominant, heterogeneous? Aa
What is a dominant, homogeneous? AA
What is a recessive, homogeneous? aa
What is polygentic inheritance? when a single trait is controlled by 2 or more sets of alleles
What is pleiotropy? The production by a single gene of two or more unrelated effects.
What is a phenotype? The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
What is Semi-conservative replication? replicates the entire genome
What is a lagging strand? Happens in chunks
What is a chromosome? A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. Also it is known as tightly wound DNA.
What is a chromatid? A chromatid is one half of a chromosome at a stage of the cell cycle when the chromosome contains two molecules of DNA.
What part of the cell cycle do you see the chromosome? Metaphase
What happens in G2? Its prepares to split
What happens in the S phase? .The cell's DNA replicates, ensuring that future cells obtain similar copies of its hereditary material, and proteins associated with DNA are produced during this phase.
What is the difference between a nitrogen of base and a nucloetide? Nitrogen is just a base, holds DNA together
What is the sequence of phases? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What is the penetrance of the phenotype of the population? Everyone may ave the phenotype but not everyone shows it
What is Pituitary dwarfism? Not enough growth hormone
What is Achondrcdroplasic dwarfism? Axial skeleton grows but not the appendicular.
What is huntington's disease? Develops in adulthood and ends in dementia
What is Tay-Sachs? Genetic blood disease, jewish decent
What is hemophilia? Sex-linked; in ability to clot blood
What are sex linked traits? Sex-linked traits are genes that are on either the X or Y chromosomes.
Which sex is more likely to get a sex link trait? Males due to the XY
What is a diploid? Inherits two sets of chromosome
What is a haploid? Has only one set chromosome
What is an example of a haploid? Bacteria
What is a monomer? Simple carb
What is a polymer? Complex carb
Is a sacchrid a monomer or polymer? Monomer
What are functional groups? atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules.
Created by: BatmanlovesPanda