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A&P I Ch.3&4

tissues & skin

QuestionAnswer
What are the four major families of tissues that make up the human body? Epithelial tissue,Connective tissue,Muscular tissue,Nervous tissue
epithelial tissue: Divided into two major types? a.covering and lining epithelium b.glandular epithelium
1.What are the general features of epithelium? -The cells are densely packed, little extracellular space, Have various surfaces: lateral, apical (free surface), basal surfaces, Basement membrane: a thin extracellular layer,
2.What are the general features of epithelium? Avascular, Has a very high rate of cell division,has a nerve supply -numerous functions including:protection, filtration, secretion, absorption, excretion
1.What are the description (structure) of simple squamous? Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
2.What are the description (function) of simple squamous? Functions: Diffusion and filtration,Provide a slick, friction-reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular systems,Present in the kidney glomeruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serosae
What are the description (structure and function) of simple cuboidal? Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei Function in secretion and absorption Present in kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface
What are the description (structure and function) of simple columnar? Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei; many contain cilia Goblet cells are often found in this layer Function in absorption and secretion Nonciliated type line digestive tract and gallbladder
What are the description (structure and function) of transitional epithelium? Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped Stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder Lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra
What are the description (structure)of pseudostratified ciliated columnar? Single layer of cells with different heights; some do not reach the free surface Nuclei are seen at different layers, may contain goblet cells and bear cilia.
What are the description (function) of pseudostratified ciliated columnar? Function in secretion and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action Ciliated: trachea, most of upper respiratory tract
How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Covering and Lining Epithelium arrangement of cells into layers reflects its location and function b.arrangements include: i.Simple (unilaminar) epithelium (single layer of cells) ii.Pseudostratified epithelium (single layer that appears stratified)
2.How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Covering and Lining Epithelium iii.Stratified (multilaminar) epithelium (two or more layers of cells) cells may be categorized by cell shape: i.Squamous cells are flattened ii.Cuboidal cells are usually cube-shaped or hexagons iii.Columnar cells are tall and cylindrical
3.How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Covering and Lining Epithelium iv.Transitional cells are able to undergo changes in shape caused by distension e.according to number of layers present and cell shapes (in the apical layer),
How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Glandular Epithelium A gland is a one or more cell that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid - Classified by: Site of product release – endocrine or exocrine Relative number of cells forming the gland – unicellular or multicellular
2.How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Glandular Epithelium Endocrine Glands Ductless glands that produce hormones Secretions include amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, and steroids
3How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Glandular Epithelium Exocrine Glands More numerous than endocrine glands Secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities Examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands
4.How can the epithelial tissues be classified? Glandular Epithelium Classified as: Unicellular or Multicellular Simple or compound duct type.Functional Classification:Merocrine,Apocrine,Holocrine glands
What are difference among the holocrine glands, merocrine glands, and apocrine glands ? Merocrine glands: form the secretory product and release it from the cell, i.e. salivary glands.
2.What are difference among the holocrine glands, merocrine glands, and apocrine glands ? Apocrine glands:pinched off portion of cell is secretion, human? Holocrine glands: mature cell dies and becomes secretory product,i.e. sebaceous gland of the skin.
What are the major difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands? Endocrine Glands Ductless glands that produce hormones Secretions include amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, and steroids
2.What are the major difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands? Exocrine Glands More numerous than endocrine glands Secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities Examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands
What are the examples of the connective tissue? (blood, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, etc.) Embryonic connective tissue: Mesenchyme gives rise to all other connective tissues.Mucous connective tissue (Wharton’s jelly) is found primarily in the umbilical cord of the fetus.Mature connective tissue:Loose connective tissue,dense connnective tissue
2.What are the examples of the connective tissue? (blood, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, etc.) cartilage, bone(osseous)tissue,blood tissue, lymph
Mature connective tissue:Loose connective tissue Loose connective tissue has loosely arranged fibers in the matrix.1.Areolar connective tissue 2.adipose tissue 3.Reticular connective tissue
Areolar connective tissue - has several types of cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, etc. - has all three types of fibers - ground substance is semifluid - located in subcutaneous layer of skin, blood vessels, etc. - provides strength, elasticity, and support
adipose tissue - contains adipocytes that store triglycerides - located in subcutaneous layer, around organs, etc. - white adipose tissue insulates, stores energy reserves, supports and protects various organs; brown adipose tissue generates heat in the newborn
Reticular connective tissue - contains reticular fibers and reticular cells - binds together cells of smooth muscle tissue, forms stroma (framework) of organs, etc.
Dense connective tissue has densely arranged fibers in the matrix.1.Dense regular connective tissue.2.Dense irregular connective tissue.3.Elastic connective tissue
Dense regular connective tissue contains rows of fibroblasts located between numerous parallel (i.e., regularly arranged) bundles of collagen fibers - forms tendons and most ligaments - provides strong attachment between various structures
Dense irregular connective tissue contains fibroblasts scattered among randomly oriented (i.e., irregularly arranged) collagen fibers - located in dermis, periosteum, heart valves, etc. - provides strength
Elastic connective tissue - contains fibroblasts scattered among elastic fibers - located in walls of elastic arteries, lung tissue, etc. - provides elasticity and strength
Cartilage contains chondrocytes embedded in the lacunae (spaces) of a gelatinous matrix that includes collagen fibers and elastic fibers; it is avascular (and therefore heals slowly) and lacks nerves; it is usually covered by a perichondrium.
Hyaline cartilage - has fine collagen fibers that are not visible with ordinary staining techniques used in light microscopy. is most abundant (but weakest) type of cartilage. located on ends of long bones, nose, trachea, etc.
Hyaline cartilage - provides flexibility and support; at joints, it reduces friction and absorbs shocks
Fibrocartilage - contains visible bundles of collagen fibers, making it the strongest type of cartilage - it lacks a perichondrium - located in intervertebral discs, knee menisci, etc. - provides strength and rigidity as well as flexibility and support
Elastic cartilage - contains network of elastic fibers - located in epiglottis, external ear, etc. - maintains shape and provides strength and elasticity
Bone (osseous) tissue contains osteocytes embedded in lacunae (with canaliculi) of a rigid, calcified matrix that includes collagen fibers; it is classified as:Compact (dense) bone, Spongy (cancellous) bone
Compact (dense) bone composed of osteons (haversian systems) in which there are concentric rings of matrix called lamellae; each osteon contains a central (haversian) canal
Spongy (cancellous) bone consisting of trabeculae; spaces between the trabeculae contain red bone marrow. Bone supports, protects, helps generate movement, stores minerals, and houses red marrow and yellow marrow.
Blood tissue consists of a liquid matrix called plasma in which the following formed elements are suspended:Erythrocytes,Leukocytes,Platelets
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes (white blood cells) are involved in phagocytosis, immunity, and allergic reactions
Platelets play a role in blood clotting
Lymph is interstitial fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels
What types of cells are in the connective tissue? Fibroblasts,Macrophages,Plasma cells,Mast cells, Adipocytes,White blood cells
Fibroblasts present in all CT; secrete fibers and ground substance.
Macrophages developed from monocytes; engulf bacteria and cellular debris.
Plasma cells developed from B lymphocytes; secrete antibodies.
Mast cells abundant alongside the blood vessels that supply CT; secrete histamine.
Adipocytes deep to the skin and around organs such as heart and kidneys; store triglycerides
White blood cells not found in significant numbers in normal CT
What is the function of fibroblasts? present in all CT; secrete fibers and ground substance
What cells secrete histamine and heparin? Mast cells
What cells secrete antibodies? Plasma cells
What cells engulf foreign agents and damaged cells? Macrophages
What are the three types of fibers in the connective tissue? Collagen fibers, Elastic fibers, Reticular fibers
What tissue contains all three types of the fibers? areolar connective tissue
What are the characteristics and functions areolar loose connective tissue? - has several types of cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, etc. - has all three types of fibers - ground substance is semifluid - located in subcutaneous layer of skin, blood vessels, etc. - provides strength, elasticity, and support
What are the characteristics and functions Adipose tissue? - contains adipocytes that store triglycerides - located in subcutaneous layer, around organs, etc. - white adipose tissue insulates, stores energy reserves, supports and protects various organs; brown adipose tissue generates heat in the newborn
What are the characteristics and functions Dense regular connective tissue? - contains rows of fibroblasts located between numerous parallel (i.e., regularly arranged) bundles of collagen fibers - forms tendons and most ligaments - provides strong attachment between various structures
What are the characteristics and functions Dense irregular connective tissue? - contains fibroblasts scattered among randomly oriented (i.e., irregularly arranged) collagen fibers - located in dermis, periosteum, heart valves, etc. - provides strength
What is the flexible connective tissue that joins a rib to the sternum? hyaline cartilage
What is the strongest cartilage? Fibrocartilage
What tissue would take the longest time to heal? Cartilage
What two types of tissues make up an epithelial membrane? An epithelial membrane consists of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer.
The principal epithelial membranes are? Mucous membrane (mucosa), Serous membrane (serosa), Cutaneous membrane
Mucous membrane (mucosa) lines a cavity that opens to the exterior (e.g., gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, etc.);
Mucous membrane (mucosa) it forms a barrier against entry of microbes, secretes mucus to prevent dehydration and trap pathogens, etc.; the connective tissue layer is called lamina propria
Serous membrane (serosa) a body cavity that does not open to the exterior (e.g., thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity), and it covers (visceral layer) organs inside these cavities (e.g., lungs, stomach);
Serous membrane (serosa) the epithelial layer secretes a lubricating serous fluid that reduces friction between the organs and the walls of the cavities; examples include the pericardium, pleura and peritoneum.
Synovial membranes (which lack an epithelial layer) line joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths; synoviocytes secrete components of a lubricating synovial fluid that reduces friction during movements.
What type of the membrane lines a cavity that opens to the exterior? Mucous membrane (mucosa)
The two principal layers of skin are the ____ and _____. epidermis n dermis
2. In the epidermis, from deepest to most superficial, the cells pass through the layers in what order? Stratum Germinativum(Basale) Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum
Epidermal strata From the superficial to the deepest layer “Can Little Girl Speak German?” Stratum: Corneum, Lucidum(white) Granulosum(hot pink) Spinosum(light pink) germinativum=Basale(red0
What are the characteristics, function, and location of keratinocytes? 90% of the cells are keratinocytes, which produce keratin that provides protection
What are the characteristics, function, and location of melanocytes? melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin that protects against damage by ultraviolet radaition
What are the characteristics, function, and location of Langerhans cells? Langerhans cells (or intraepidermal macrophage cells), which are involved in immune responses
What are the characteristics, function, and location of Merkel cells? Merkel cells (or tactile epithelial cells), which function in the sensation of touch along with the adjacent tactile (or Merkel) discs
The greatest amount of keratin is found which stratum? Stratum Corneum
Which stratum is found in the thick skin but not in the thin skin? Stratum Lucidum
The two regions of dermis include the superficial _____ region and the deeper ____ region. papillary; reticular
the outer papillary region consists ? of areolar connective tissue containing thin collagen and elastic fibers, dermal papillae (including capillary loops), corpuscles of touch (Meissner’s corpuscles), and free nerve endings
the deeper reticular region consists ? of dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers (which provide strength, extensibility, and elasticity to the skin), adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sudoriferous (sweat) glands
What types of cells in the dermis (keep in mind, it is made of connective tissue, not the epithelial tissue)? containing Adipocytes, WBC, Mast cells, Plasma cells,Macrophage, Fibroblasts
What are the dermal papillae? What do they contain? ___ and ____. dermal papillae= papillary region contains: capillary loops, corpuscles of touch(Meissner's corpuscles) and free nerve endings. finger like projections
What make the skin to be able to stretch and recoil? elastic fibers
Three pigments that are responsible for skin color are _____, ____, and ____. melanin, carotene, n hemoglobin
melanin (located mostly in the epidermis, where it absorbs UV radiation) - albinism is an inherited inability to produce melanin - vitiligo is a condition in which there is a partial or complete loss of melanocytes
carotene (found in the stratum corneum, dermis, and subcutaneous layer)
hemoglobin (located in erythrocytes flowing through dermal capillaries) Cyanotic: occurs because hemoglobin is depleted of oxygen; skin appears bluish. Jaundice: is due to a buildup of the yellow pigment bilirubin the blood.
What cells produce melanin? melanocytes
Where do they locate? (located mostly in the epidermis, where it absorbs UV radiation)
What would leads to increased production of melanin? Increased UV radiation exposured
What causes albinism? is an inherited inability to produce melanin
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protection – chemical, physical, and mechanical barrier Body temperature regulation is accomplished by: Dilation (cooling) and constriction (warming) of dermal vessels Increasing sweat gland secretions to cool the body
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Cutaneous sensation – exoreceptors sense touch and pain Metabolic functions – synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels Blood reservoir – skin blood vessels store up to 5% of the body’s blood volume
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Excretion – limited amounts of nitrogenous wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat
What two types of tissue make up the subcutaneous (hypodermis) layer? Subcutaneous (subQ) layer (also called hypodermis) -composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue;
Subcutaneous(subQ)layer (hypodermis) Beneath the dermis is a subcutaneous (subQ) layer (also called hypodermis) which attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs.
Subcutaneous(subQ)layer (hypodermis) is not part of the skin but, among its functions, it attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs; this layer (and sometimes the dermis) contains lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles which detect external pressure applied to the skin
Which one is the commonest form of skin cancer? statements is true? Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma Least malignant and most common skin cancer Stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis Slow growing and do not often metastasize Can be cured by surgical excision in 99% of the cases
Which one is the most likely form of skin cancer to metastasize. melanoma
melanoma Cancer of melanocytes is the most dangerous type of skin cancer because it is: Highly metastatic Resistant to chemotherapy Melanomas have the following characteristics (ABCD rule)
melanoma A: Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match B: Border is irregular and exhibits indentations C: Color (pigmented area) is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue D: Diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)
melanoma Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy Chance of survival is poor if the lesion is over 4 mm thick
Are skin color and family history considered as risk factors for skin cancer? YES, all cancers are genetic factors related. it is a genetic factor and environmental factor both play important role for the cancer risks.Ex.mother had breast cancer then daughter will have higher cancer developmental
What word does each letter of the “ABCD” stand for in the American Cancer Society’s ABCD guidelines for detecting malignant melanoma? A: Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match B: Border is irregular and exhibits indentations C: Color (pigmented area) is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue D: Diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)
Burns -Tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity, radioactivity, or corrosive chemicals that destroy the proteins in the skin cells.
the classification and characteristics of the first degree burns? -Involved only the epidermis. -Mild pain, erythema but no blisters; skin functions remain intact.
the classification and characteristics of the second degree burns? -Destroys a portion of the epidermis and possible parts of the dermis(portion or entire dermis).doesn't require skin graft -Redness, blister, edema, and pain; some functions lost.
the classification and characteristics of the third degree burns? -Destroys a portion of the epidermis, the underlying dermis, and associated structures. -Most functions lost
Holocrine glands holo=entire.dead cells. is a sebaceous(oil) gland of the skin.Mature cells dies n becomes secretory product->cell division replaces lost cell. p.77
Merocrine glands=eccrine glands mero- =a part ex. salivary glands n pancreas has alive cells. are synthesized on ribosomes attached to rough ER; processed, sorted, n packaged by the Golgi complex; n released from the cell in secretory vesicles via exocytosis. Most exocrine glands of the body are merocrine glands.
Apocrine glands apo- =from accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell.then that portion of the cell pinches off from the rest of the cell to release the secretion
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands? produce sweat(perspiration), there are two types of sweat glands: eccrine=merocrine sweat glands n apocrine sweat glands
eccrine=merocrine sweat glands this sweat may be lost as insensible perspiration or sensible perspiration numerous, which have an excretory duct that opens at a pore at the surface of the epidermis; the sweat secreted by these glands helps to cool the body by evaporating, n also eliminates small amounts of wastes.
apocrine sweat glands which are located mainly in the skin of the axilla, groin, areolae(mammary glands) n bearded facial regions of adult males; their excretory ducts open into hair follicles.
apocrine sweat glands this sweat is secreted during emotional stress n sexual excitement; it is commonly called "cold sweat". After puberty stars working
How can the epithelial tissues be classified? according to number of layers present n cell shapes (in the apical layers). One layer=simple epithelium; more than one layer=stratified; shape of cell & # of layers simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous
Created by: nely.nieto