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Basics of Anatomy

Audiology PowerPoint 1

Anatomy from Greek: to cute open. Study the structure of things
Physiology from Greek: study of nature. Study of the function of living systems
Describe the Anatomical Position Body erect; head, eyes, toes directed forward; palms directed forward
Describe the Median plane Vertical, front to back in midline
Describe the Sagittal plane Vertical, parallel to median. Divides the body into right and left halves.
Describe the Frontal plane Also called Coronal. Vertical, perpendicular to median. Divides the body into anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal.
Synonym for anterior ventral
Synonym for posterior dorsal
Describe the Horizontal plane Also called Transverse. Parallel to floor. Divides the body into superior or rostral and inferior or caudal halves.
Synonym for superior rostral
Synonym for inferior caudal
Medial closer to median plane
Lateral further from median plane
Superficial towards surface of body
Deep towards center of body
Ipsilateral on the same side
Contralateral on the opposite side
Distal further from origin or attachment
Peripheral away from the center
Proximal nearer origin or attachment
Flexion Bending in the sagittal plane
Extension straightening in the sagittal plane
Adduction movement toward to midline
Abduction movement away from the midline
Protraction forward movement
Retraction backward movement
5 basic elements of Anatomy Organisms, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Molecules
4 types of tissue Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Neural
Describe squamous tissue Epithelial. Flat, pressed closely together like a wall. Acts as a barrier (epidermis, urinary bladder)
Describe cuboidal tissue Epithelial. Long cylinders like pipes, good for transportation of fluids, for secretion (sweat glands, salivary glands, liver, stomach)
Describe columnar tissue Epithelial. Long and tall, squished together and easily expanded for absorption (intestinal mucosa)
Describe ciliated tissue Epithelial. Ciliated, or covered in hairs. Can transport such as in the trachea, and also act as sensory such as outer hair cells.
Describe the basic elements of connective tissue 1-cells are separated 2-fibers (collagen for strength and elastin for elasticity) 3-ECM, Extracellular matrix. Fuction: support, anchor, connect
Seven types of connective tissue Areolar (attach organs and epithelium), lymphoid (immune system), fibrous (strong), adipose (fat), cartilaginous, osseous (bone), and blood
Tendon a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
Aponeuroses? Layers of flat broad tendons.
Ligament fibrous connective tissue but joins one bone to another bone
Fascia an areolar connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, etc. Like a plastic wrap holding the contents of a sandwhich together.
Cartilage flexible connective tissue found in joints between bones (rib cage, ear, nose, elbow, knee, ankle, etc.)
Osseous tissue--name the 2 basic structural types of bone. Compact and Spongy or Cancellous
Compact bone forms the outer shell of all bones and also the shaft in long bones.
Spongy or Cancellous bone found at expanded heads of long bones and fills most irregular bones.
4 types of bone Long, short, flat, and irregular
Long bones comprise mostly of compact bone tissue. Marrow in medullary cavity. (legs, fingers, toes)
Diaphysis the shaft of a bone
Epiphysis the ends of a bone
Describe short bones have only a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a spongy interior and a roughly cube like shape (wrists, ankles, knee caps)
Describe flat bones thin and generally curved. Two parallel layers of compact bones sandwich a layer of spongy bone. (cranium, sternum)
Describe irregular bones do not fit into any categories, have irregular shapes (spine, hips)
Three types of muscular tissue Striated (skeletal, voluntary), smooth (internal organs, involuntary), cardiac (involuntary)
Origin of a muscle? the point of attachment to a bone or another muscle, does not move following contraction.
Insertion of a muscle? opposite end from the origin, does move upon contraction
Name the two categories of neural tissue. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
Name the two parts of the CNS Brain and spinal cord
Name the two parts of the PNS Cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Created by: 100000299709410



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