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Digestive System

Chapter 20 Anatomy & Physiology

the study of the digestive tract and diagnosis and treatment of its diseases. Gastroenterology
The digestive tract is also know as Alimentary Canal
The first phase of digestion Mechanical
it involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces, beginning with chewing in the mouth Mechanical
the second phase of digestion Chemical
uses digestive enzymes produced in the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestines to break down food particles into nutrients that cells can use Chemical
the innermost layer of tissue that makes up the wall in the digestive tract Mucosa
consists of three layers of its own: an inner layer of epithelium, a layer of loose connective tissue and a thin layer of smooth muscle Mucosa
Is a thick layer of connective tissue Submucosa
it contains glands, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves Submucosa
Consists of two layers of smooth muscle Muscularis
the layer of the digestive tract that contracts and relaxes to propel food forward is the Muscularis
the outer most layer Serosa
covers a portion of the digestive tract within the peritoneal cavity. Serosa
the outer layer covering of the esophagus and rectum is called Adventital
The _____ layer of the peritoneum covers the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity Visceral
the ______ layer of the peritoneum attaches to the walls of the cavity Parietal
the brake down of food Digestion
a network of nerves that innervates the digestive system Enteric Nerves System
Layers of peritoneum that suspend the digestive organs within the abdominal cavity while anchoring them loosely to the abdominal wall Mesenteries
extending from the greater curvature of the stomach and hanging down over the small intestines like an apron is a portion of the mesentery called the Greater Omentum
the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity Ascites
extends from the lesser curve of the stomach to the liver Lesser omentum
fixes the colon to the posterior abdominal wall mesocolon
organs enclosed in peritoneum Intraperitoneal
Some organs like the duodenum, most of the pancreas, and kidneys lie behind the peritoneum and are said to be Retroperitoneal
the oral cavity is also known as the Buccal Cavity
it surrounds the lips and bordered on each side of the cheeks Buccal Cavity
formed portions of maxillae and palatine bones Hard palate
separates the mouth from the nasal cavity Hard Palate
Consists of mostly skeletal muscle and forms an arch between the mouth and nasopharynx Soft Palate
A cone-shaped thing that hangs downward from the soft palate Uvula
skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane Tongue
it repositions food in the mouth during chewing Tongue
it contains taste buds within the projections Tongue
inside of taste buds Lingual papillae
a fold of mucous membrane that anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth Lingual Frenulum
an ideal site for soluble drugs to be absorbed quickly into the circulation Lingual Frenulum
The Salivary gland secrete Saliva
a Clear fluid consisting mostly of water, but also containing mucus, an enzyme that kills bacteria, antibacterial compounds, electrolytes, and two digestive enzymes Saliva
moistens food and transforms it into a mass called Bolus
the enzyme in saliva that brakes down starch Amylase
the enzyme in saliva that begins the digestion of fat lipase
lies just underneath the skin anterior to the ear Parotid Gland
its duct drains saliva to the area near the second upper molar Parotid Gland
Empties into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenulum Submandibular Gland
Drains though multiple ducts onto the floor of the mouth Sublingual Gland
digestion begins when food enters the mouth and is chewed: a process called ________ Mastication
Chisel-like _______ have sharp edges for cutting food Incisors
Pointed _______ teeth are designed to tear food Canine
______ and molars have large, flat surfaces for crushing or grinding Premolars
Early teeth or baby teeth are called _______ teeth Deciduous
the potion of the tooth above the gums Crown
The gums are called Gingiva
the root and the drown meet at the gum line called the Neck
is embedded in a socket in the jawbone Root
A hard tissue the covers the crown Enamel
The bulk of the tooth consists of a firm yellowish tissue called Dentin
contains mass of connective tissue, Blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves inside a tooth Pulp Cavity
nerves inside a tooth Pulp
Fills the root canals of each root in a tooth Pulp
lines the socket of the tooth Periodontal Ligament
Fibers that both the root and the socket to anchor the tooth in place Periodontal Ligament
A connective tissue that covers the dentin in the root Cementum
Connecting the pharynx to the stomach Esophagus
A muscular tube about 10 inches long Esophagus
Lying posterior to the teachea, it travels through the mediastinum, penetrates the diaphragm, and enters the stomach Esophagus
A muscular sphincter that helps prevent the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)
When the bolus enters the esophagus, it triggers wave-like muscular contractions the propel the food toward the stomach this process is called Peristalsis
Semi-fluid mixture consisting of particles of food mixed with digestive juices Chyme
Chyme leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum by passing through the Pyloric Sphincter
Along the upper surface of the stomach Lesser Curvature
Along the lower surface of the stomach Greater Curvature
located in the Left upper quadrant inferior to diaphragm and anterior to the spleen Stomach
Holds food and mechanically and chemically digests it Stomach
In the Region called the Cardia Cardiac Orifice
Opening from the esophagus Cardiac Orifice
The part superior to the Cardiac orifice Fundus
The part of the stomach that usually contains air Fundus
The main part of the stomach Body
the Area adjacent to duodenum Pylorus
Separates the duodenum and the Pylorus Pyloric Sphincter
Contracts to prevent backflow from the duodenum back to the Pylorus Pyloric Sphincter
Wrinkles/folds that appear when the stomach is empty Rugea
Contains Gastric glands that consist several cell types Gastric Pits
Secrets Mucus Mucous Cells
Secrets Pepsinogen Chief Cells
Breaks Peptide Bonds Chief Cells
Secrets H+ from proton pumps into the stomach that bonds to CI- that also diffuses from the parietal cells to become hydrochloric acid (HCI) Parital Cells
Secretes Intrinsic factor Parital Cells
Protects the stomach lining and keeps the stomach from digesting itself Mucous Cells
Secretes the hormone Ghrelin and Gastrin Enteroendocrine Cells
Increases digestive secretions Gastrin
Secreted when food enters the stomach Gastrin
Stimulates the Hypothalamus to increase appetite Ghrelin
All of the secretions of the stomach Gastric Juice
the first phase of secretions in gastric juice Cephalic
The phase that even the mere thought of food as well as the sight or smell activates gastric juices Cephalic
The phase that signals the parasympathetic nervous system to secrete gastric juices Cephalic
the second phase of secretions in the gastric juices Gastric
the phase that begins when food enters the stomach Gastric
the third phase of secretions in gastric juices Intestinal
as chyme moves into the duodenum this phase begins Intestinal
The term hepatic refers to the liver
Swelling and inflammation of the liver Hepatitis
the right and the left lobes of the liver are separated by the Falciform ligament
Serves to anchor the liver to the abdominal wall Falciform ligament
The lobe of the liver near the inferior vena cava Caudate
The lobe of the liver next to the gallbladder Quadrate
Delivers oxygenated blood from the aorta to the liver Hepatic Artery
carries oxygen-poor but nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs and spleen to the liver Portal Vein
the tiny six-sided cylinders fill the interior of the liver Hepatic lobules
Passed through the core of each lobule Central vein
Sheets of hepatic cells Hepatocytes
in between the sheets of cells are passage ways filled with blood called Sinusoids
Tiny canals that carry bile secreted by hepatocytes Canaliculi
phagocytic cells that remove bacteria, worn, worn out red blood cells, and debris from the bloodstream Kupffer cells
Bile leaves the liver by the right & left hepatic ducts
the right and left hepatic ducts converge to form the Common Hepatic duct
the common hepatic duct goes on to become the Common Bile duct
Bile from the liver first fills the common bile duct before backing up into the gallbladder though the Cystic duct
The bile merges with the duct of the pancreas to form the Ampulla of Vater
The Ampulla enters the duodenum at a raised area called the Major Duodenum papilla
the sphincter that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum Sphincter of Oddi
Secretes digestive enzymes in an inactive form Acinar Cells
once this is activated in the duodenum, the enzymes help brake down lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates Acinar Cells
the arrival of chyme in the duodenum stimulates the duodenum to secrete a hormone called Cholecystokinin
the hormone from the stomach and duodenum that triggers both gallbladder contraction an pancreatic enzyme secretion Gastrin
the acid in chyme also triggers the duodenum to release _______ Secretin
Cause the bile and pancreatic ducts to release bicarbonate, which helps neutralize the stomach acid entering the duodenum Secretin
the First 10 inches of the small intestines Duodenum
the ideal location for nutrient absorption in the small intestines Jejunum
Clusters of lymphatic nodules called Peyer's Patches are found in this part of the small intestines Ileum
Ring like contractions that occur at the intervals along the small intestines Segmentation
Begins when most of the nutrients have been absorbed and undigested residue remains Peristalsis
intestinal lining contains ________ that slow the process of chyme an increase it contact with mucosa Circular folds
on top of circular folds are projections called Villi
An arteriole, A venule, and lymph vessel call a _________ fills the core of each villus Lacteal
Pores at the base of the villi Intestinal crypts
Contains many saccharide groups linked together; these include starches and glycogen Polysaccharides
Contain two groups linked together; theses include sucrose, lactose, and maltose Disaccharides
Contain only one saccharide group; the include glucose, fructose, and galactose Monosaccharides
Salivary glands secrete the enzyme Amylase
When the food reaches the small intestines, the resulting chyme mixes with ____________, and the process of starch digestion resumes Pancreatic Amylase
in the stomach the enzyme _____ hydrolyzes the peptide bonds between certain amino acids Pepsin
the enzyme that Brakes the remaining chains into individual amino acids in the stomach Pepidases
enzymes that assume the task of breaking the peptide bonds Trypsin & Chymotrypsin
The large intestine begins in a blind pound called the cecum
attached to the lower end of the cecum is a tubular organ called the Appendix
at the point where the ileum meets the large intestine is the ileocecal valve
Part of the large intestine that Passes below the liver, stomach and spleen. Transverse colon
the colon makes a sharp turn left turn at the Hepatic flexure
the colon turns sharply DOWNWARD at the Splenic flexure
the part of the large intestine that extends downward along the left side of the abdominal cavity Descending colon
Part of the large intestine that forms an "s" shape down to the rectum Sigmoid Colon
At the end of the large intestines Rectum
makes up the last inch of the rectum Anal canal
the anal canal opens to the exterior though the Anus
Created by: Leci81
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