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PLS101 Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Nullification Declaration by a state that a particular action of the national government doesn't apply to that state
Enumerated Powers Powers explicitly granted to Congress by the Constitution (collect taxes, declare war, coin money)
Order Established patterns of authority in society. Traditional mode of behavior.
Social Equality Equality in wealth, status, and education.
Equality of Opportunity All people have the same chance to succeed in life.
Majoritarian Model of Democracy Where government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people.
Republic Citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf.
Plural Executive Lieutenant govenor, attorney general, secretary of state, and others are elected independently of the govenor.
Marbury v. Madison Established right of the supreme court to nullify government acts when they conflict with the Constitution.
Globalization Challenge for democracy since the American Revolution.
Municipal Government Government unit that administers a city or town.
Delcaration of Independence Document that proclaimed the right of the colonies to separate from Great Britain.
Government Maintain order, provide public goods, promote equality.
Police Power Governments authority to safeguard residents welfare, morals, safety, and health.
Capitalism Favors free enterprise
Equality of Outcome Society must see to it that all people are equal. The government must create policies to redistribute wealth/status to ensure equality.
Articles of Confederation Compact among the 13 original states that established the first government. Emphasis of the document was on state sovereignty.
Freedom of Absense of constraint on behavior (freedom of speech, freedom of religion)
Separation of Powers Assigning of law-making, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting powers.
Elite Theory of Democracy Small group of people (minority) makes a most important government.
Conservatives Favor smaller government budgets and fewer programs.
Participatory Democracy Rank-and-File citizens rule themselves rather than electing officials to govern on their behalf.
Rights Citizens are entitled to certain benefits of the government.
Anarchism Opposed to all government. Values freedom over everything else.
Public Goods Services that benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced by the voluntary acts of individuals.
Virginia Plan Separated the government into 3 branches. Proportional representation in the legislature. More power granted to the national government.
Implied Powers Powers that congress requires in order to execute Enumerated Powers.
Great Compromise Called for bicameral legislature. Creates a people. Explains reason for Constitution. Articulates goals. Fashions a government. AKA Connecticut Compromise.
Totalarianism Belief that government should have total power to control all sectors of society.
Dilemmas of Government Freedom vs. Order Freedom vs. Equality
Democracy Government where citizens assemble and administer the government in person.
Interest Group Organized group of people that want to influence public policy.
Article I Legislative Article. Enumerated powers, denials of power, necessary & proper clause, implied powers.
Article II Executive Article. Sets presidents term of office and precedure for election. Doesn't limit the number of terms a president can serve. Natural born, 35 years old, resident for 14 years.
Article III Judicial Article. Intentionally left vague with no mention of composition/procedures to follow. Issues resolved by creating separate state/federal courts. Doesn't extend judicial review.
Type of MO legislature Bicameral
Concurrent Powers Governing functions shared by national, state, & local governments. (taxes, law enforcement, transportation)
Reserved Powers Idea that all rights not specifically granted to the national government are reserved to the states.
Oligarchy Power is concentrated in the hands of a few people.
Social Contract Theory People have the right to establish rulers for certain purposes and can resist or remove them if they violate that purpose.
Formula Grant Says who is eligible for the grant and how much money the applicant will receive.
Representative Democracy Where citizens elect public officials to elect on their behalf.
Substantive Democracy Theory View of democracy embodied in substance of government policies rather than in policymaking procedures.
Minority Rights All citizens are entitled to certain rights that cannot be denied by the majority.
Pluralist Model of Democracy Where government by the people is interpreted as government by people operating through competing interest groups.
Confederation Loose association of independent states that agree to cooperation on certain matters
Legislative Branch Makes laws
Executive Branch Enforces laws
Judicial Branch Interprets laws
New Jersey Plan Created by smaller states to preserve the spirit of the Articles. Includes single chamber legislature that tax and regulate commerce. Equal representation of all states in legislature. Supreme judiciary with limited jurisdiction.
Cooperative Federalism Holds that the Constitution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is little distinction between state and national powers. AKA marble-cake federalism
Checks & Balances Gives each branch some scrutiny and control over the other branches
Necessary & Proper Clause Gives Congress the means to execute the enumerated powers
Judicial Review Power to declare government acts invalid because they violate the Constitution.
Mandate Requirement that a state undertake an activity or provide a service in keeping with minimum national standards.
Freedom from Suggest immunity from something undesirable. (Exploitation)
Political Equality One vote per person, all votes counted equally.
Libertarianism Ideaology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property.
Political Ideaology Set of values/beliefs about purpose and scope of government.
Socialism Believes that central government plays a strong role in regulating industry and directing the economy.
Democratic Socialism Socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties (Sweden, Germany, Britain)
Liberals Favor generous government support in education, wildlife protection, and other programs.
Communitarians Favor government activities that promote equality and impose social order.
Supremacy Clause Says that national laws take precedence over state/local laws when they conflict
3 types of courts in MO Circuit & municipal, court of appeals, supreme court
3 arguments for Federalism Protect liberty, Moderate power for government, and Strengthen the union.
Dual Federalism Holds that Constitution is a compact among sovereign states so powers of national government are fixed and limited. Believes in reserved powers. AKA layer-cake federalism
Categorical Grants Grants targeted for a specific purpose either by formula or project
McCulloch v. Maryland Gave Congress the right to establish a national bank.
Preemption Power of Congress to enact laws where the national government assumes total/partial responsibility for a state government action.
Procedural Democratic Theory View of democracy embodied in a decision-making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule, responsiveness.
Created by: eah4159