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Ancient Greece stuff

Today people use whose concepts of government, art, literature, and science? the early Greeks'
When did the empire exist? 2000s-100 BCE
Many people settled on the peninsula of what? Peloponnesus
Specifically what parts of the geography of Greece created many small, isolated regions? mountains
Some groups of people got along, others fought in what that sometimes erupted into wars? fierce rivalries
Most people in Ancient Greece were what? farmers
What part of a western state was Greece's climate similar to? southern California
Why did farmers grow many grapes and olives? There was little room and grapes and olives didn't need much and they could be grown on mountains.
What grains could they also grow, though not as much as grapes and olives? wheat and barely
Why did the Ancient Greeks had to trade to get grains? Only a fourth of the land was level enough to grow them.
The roots of Greece go back to which two civilizations? the Minoans and Mycenaeans
Where did the first civilization start in Greece? On the island of Crete.
Who was the leader of the Minoans? King Minos
What range of dates was called the Minoan Age? 2000-1400 BCE
What did the Minoans develop? a writing system
What kinds of fine artwork did they create? Carved statues, pottery, metal bowls, jewelry, and weavings.
What were the Minoans also? great sailors
Who did the Minoans trade with? Egypt, Phoenicia, and Mesopotamia.
The Minoans were what in addition to being great sailors? great builders
What kinds of advanced water systems did the Minoans build in palaces? Underground plumbing and running water for the bathrooms.
What were walls of Minoan palaces decorated with? Colorful murals of daily life in Ancient Crete.
Where was the Mycenaean civilization found? On the mainland of Greece.
Who did the Mycenaeans learn from? the Minoans
What did the Mycenaeans do similar to/borrow from the Minoans? They built palaces similar to them and borrowed their system of writing.
What range of dates is known as the Mycenaean Age? 1400-1100 BCE
When did the Mycenaeans fall to invaders? around 1150 BCE
What range of dates is known as the Dark Age? 1100-800 BCE
What kept history alive during the Dark Ages? oral tradition
Did trade and record keeping stop? yes
What did people live in during the Dark Ages? isolated villages
When did writing begin again? 800 BCE
Whom did Greece borrow their alphabet from? the Phoenicians
When did the Dark Ages end? about 750 BCE
What did isolated villages grow into? developed cities
What did cities become that were independent, self-governing units? city-states
What range of dates were city-states very successful? 600s-500s BCE
Acronym for city-states on Peloponnesus. CMS
CMS Cats Make Songs
Acronym for city-states on mainland. DTMA
DTMA Dogs Train Many Animals
Acronym for city-states on Crete. K
K Kk
Acronym for west seas. AIM
AIM Aim Is Mine
Aegean sounds like what? Asian
So it must closer to? Asia minor
Acronym for east land. CP
CP Cool Peeps!
Acronym for west land. AmISRC
AmISRC Am I So Really Crazy?!
Are coastal city-states or city-states in the midst of mountains more accepting of change? coastal city-states
How did coastal settlements affect the lives of the Greeks? It encouraged them to engage in overseas trade and made them prone to cultural diffusion.
How did the mountains affect the lives of the Greeks? How is this shown on the map? It separated them into small, spread out, isolated regions and they all developed separately.
What larger time period was the Age of Expansion part of? the Archaic Period
What were some characteristics of the Archaic Period? The rediscovery of writing (Greeks adopted & added to the Phoenicians' alphabet), rise in living standards, more contact with outside world (through war & trade), art improved, first Olympic games held, & emigration started when Greece became overcrowded.
What is a bard? a professional poet
How are bards important to understanding ancient Greek history? They helped keep history alive during the Dark Ages through oral tradition.
Who was the most famous bard? Homer
What was Homer known for? Two epic poems: the Iliad and the Odyssey.
What the Iliad and the Odyssey the earliest examples of? literature
emigration Leaving your home country to settle elsewhere.
How did emigration lead to the expansion of Ancient Greece? Different groups of Greeks set up colonies, claimed land, and therefore expanding Greece.
Why did people emigrate out of Greece? It was overcrowded; more land, jobs, and resources elsewhere; and there were refugees from political disagreements.
What does emigration lead to? immigration
It was from these expert sailors and metalworkers that the Greeks adopted the use of the arch. Etruscans
Warlike people, famed for their cruelty. Assyrians
Lived on the coast of modern-day Lebanon. Phoenicians
From these people the Greeks acquired timber, glass, furniture, and purple cloth. Phoenicians
People from the northern part of the Italian peninsula. Etruscans
From these people the Greeks acquired wheat, salt, hides, and slaves. Scythians
These people were the most successful traders and shipbuilders in the Mediterranean. Phoenicians
One of these people's most famous city-states/colony was called Tyre. Phoenicians
From these people the Greeks acquired goods like: papyrus, fine linen, perfume, some, and grains. Egyptians
alliance a formal written agreement between nations for a common cause
peninsula a body of land that is surrounded on three sides by water
polis an independent Greek state, consisting of a city and the surrounding countryside; city-state
isthmus a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land
aristocrat a member of the most powerful class in ancient Greek society
archipelago a group or chain of islands
colony a settlement under the control of a usually distant country
Peloponnesus a peninsula forming the southern part of mainland Greece
citizen a person who has certain rights and duties in a city-state or nation
No point on mainland Greece was more than how far from the sea? 40 miles
What was the Greeks' preferred method of transportation? sailing
What did not continuing the use of running water and underground plumbing do? it set development back
Why were the Minoans conquered? a natural disaster (a tidal wave) hit them
How were the Mycenaeans' palaces different from the Minoans'? Mycenaeans' solely functional, Minoans' also decorative.
Why were the Mycenaeans conquered? They were weakened by internal conflict, over resources.
What was borrowing the Phoenicians' alphabet an example of? cultural diffusion
What made the Dark Age end? When people realized that they could trade and work together.
What did cities developing into city-states lead into? the Age of Expansion
A warlike nomadic people that invaded Mycenae in 1150 BCE. Dorians
What did Mycenaean palaces double as? fortresses
What are the three qualifications a person must have to be considered a citizen in Athens? Being male, over 18, and registered in their deme, or village community.
What are the four groups of people who did not have citizenship in Athens? Women, slaves, metics, and children.
What are the two components of Athenian Democracy? The Citizens' Assembly and the Council of 500.
In what ways other than the Council or Assembly could citizens participate in Athenian government? In the Courts, serving on a jury, and/or voting.
Which part of Athenian Democracy had citizens selected at random every year for participation? Council of 500
What happened to citizens who did not attend the assembly meetings in Athens? They could not vote, which could result in decisions the absentees did not like.
Which part of Athenian Democracy was responsible for preparing and discussing bills? Council of 500
Which part of Athenian Democracy was responsible for voting on the issues presented? Citizens'Assembly
What is ostracism and how was it used in Athenian society? The process by which less than admirable citizens were banned from participating in the government processes for 10 years. It took place with a vote from the Assembly, and it was a way to keep the democracy "pure."
What is the main difference between direct democracy and representative democracy? Direct: citizens govern themselves directly Representative: representatives elected by citizens govern a country
He considered the man who started true democracy in Athens. Cleisthenes
He was responsible for first writing down the laws in Athens. Draco
He created the Council of 500. Cleisthenes
He ended debt slavery in Athens. Solon
He revised the first set of written laws in Athens. Solon
All crimes under his leadership were were punishable by death. Draco
He set up the People's Court in Athens. Solon
He created the Council of 400. Solon
He reorganized membership and population count in Athens. Cleisthenes
In a democracy, ruling power is in the hands of who? all the people
demos people
kratos power
When did democracy arise in Athens? circa 500-400 BCE
About how long did the democracy system stay in Athens? about 100 years
Where did all government business take place in Athens? the Acropolis
What was the Acropolis also considered to be? a religious center
Citizens'Assembly The main governing body.
Who was invited? all 30,000 citizens
Out of the 30,000 citizens, how many actually came? about 5,000
Who usually did not attend, even though they could? the poor
Council of 500 In charge of day-to-day running of the state.
How were decisions reached in the Citizen's Assembly? debate and vote
How were the 500 citizens in the Council of 500 chosen? annual lottery, drawing names out of a containor
Who were new laws and policies carried out and enforced by? Strategoi
How many strategoi were chosen each year? ten
How were strategoi selected? annual election
Who was a strategoi turned democratic leader in Athens? Pericles
What were Pericles' Four Principles of Democracy? Personal ablility, to make choices; opportunity to get ahead through one's ability, not the social class one was born into; equality before law; and majority rules, what most people want.
monarchy Ruling power in the hands of one person.
Who is the one person who usually rules in a monarchy? a king
monos single
arkhein rule
What is the range of dates in which monarchies in Greece lasted from? 2000-800 BCE
What ages did monarchies in Greece last through? Minoan to Dark Age
Beyond the capital were what of people who paid taxes to the king? villages
People obeyed the king's laws and turned to him for what? protection
Who did kings rely on to enforce laws and make people pay taxes? army generals
Who would take over after the kings death? his oldest son
What would happen if there was no male in line for inheriting the throne? Those with high military status battle to be the new monarch.
What year did Mycenaean monarchies end? circa 1200 BCE
What age did Mycenaean monarchies end? (the end of) the Mycenaean Age
Why did eastern trade routes begin to close? fighting in Asia Minor
Why couldn't the Mycenaeans get to make weapons? the eastern trade roots were closed
What did the people end up doing? destroying each other
Who invaded Greece and destroyed the rest of the Mycenaean monarchy? the Dorians
What did the Dorians invading and taking over, then leaving do to Greece? It began their Dark Age.
Oligarchy Ruling power in the hands of a few people.
Who influenced the idea of oligarchies? the Dorians
What was the Dorians' form of oligarchy? two army generals
Why did oligarchies start? aristocrats were tired of paying taxes
Whose hands did the ruling power rest in? A few selected wealthy people and some people who got power by birth.
oligos few
What did the Dark Age usher in? the rule of oligarchy
When did oligarchs rule in most city-states? 800-650 BCE
What kinds of lives did oligarchs have? good ones
How did oligarchs enforce their rule? military strength
Did citizens in oligarchies have protections? some
What did citizens lack in oligarchies? political rights, e.g. voting
What did most city-states start to do after a while? look for new leadership
What was the only city-state that remained an oligarchy? Sparta
Why did tyrannies begin? Citizens wanted a new kind of government because oligarchies lacked political rights.
What did tyrants do to come into power? eliminate the current leader
tyranny Ruling power is in the hands of a person who had seized control, often illegally.
How were were tyrants know for holding power? using cruel and abusive means
tyrannos usurper with supreme power
When did tyrannies arise in Greece? mid 600s BCE
What age did tyrannies arise in Greece? Age of Expansion
Why did tyrannies arise during the Age of Expansion? tyrants took over other lands
What did the middle class demand to go with their contributions? political and social privileges
What did the ruling oligarchs do? they refused
Because of the refusal, what did former military leaders (soon to be tyrants) promise the middle class? to help them
What did the tyrants actually do? They reformed some laws, then became greedy when they became rich from the middle class's gifts.
Who was the last important tyrant? Hippias
What was Hippias known for? supreme cruelty
When was Hippias forced resign? 510 BCE
Why was Hippias forced to resign? Athenians and Spartan invaders
Why did the Athenians get the Spartans to help chase out Hippias? Sparta had a strong military.
helot a state slave in Ancient Sparta
ephor one of the five elected officials who supervised the kings of Ancient Sparta
Council of Elders a small group of Spartans who made all the important governing decisions
agora a market place in Ancient Greece
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