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SOL Vocabulary

A review of vocabulary for World History 1500AD to Present

belief in one god; Judaism is the first monotheism
belief in many gods; Hinduism polytheism
past deeds will determine the future; Hinduism karma
holy book of Judaism Torah
holy book of Islam Quran/Koran
holy book of Christianity The Bible (Old--from Judaism--and New Testament)
holy book of Hinduism Vedas
God's son Jesus is call the _________. messiah
Given to Moses on the mountain; rules to follow 10 Commandments
holy war predicted by Muslims jihad
Christians belief of the father, son, and holy spirit trinity
Muslim belief: fasting, prayer, pilgrimage, alms to poor, and faith in Allah Five Pillars
Holy month for Muslims; no eating from sun up to sun down Ramadan
Hindu belief in many lives; can also apply to Buddhism reincarnation
class system for Hinduism; from untouchable to Brahmins caste system
Buddhist beliefs: suffering exists; material desires cause suffering; get rid of desires and no more suffering; reach nirvana Four Noble Truths
Buddhist belief--8 steps towards ending suffering Eightfold Path
Buddha; when you understand the meaning of life you have become ___________. Enlightened
ultimate goal for Buddhists is to reach __________. Nirvana
Religious war among German princes; Protestants vs. Catholics; ended with the Peace of Augsburg Thirty Years War
only Christian church during the Middle Ages in western Europe Catholic Church
speaking out against the Catholic Church; Galileo was accused of this and brought before the Inquisition heresy
Italian word for rebirth of Greek and Roman culture Renaissance
belief led by Erasmus; focus on individual and study of the classical Greek and Roman culture humanism
invention which allowed the spread of the Renaissance and Reformation; developed by Gutenberg printing press
Catholics could buy these pardon from sins; Martin Luther hated these indulgences
merchants did not like the Catholic belief that you should not charge interest when lending money, also known as __________. usury
Luther nailed these on a church door; protests against the Catholic Church 95 Theses
Calvin's belief that God has already chosen who would be let into heaven predestination
Church of England created by Henry VIII Anglican
Catholic church group that punished those who spoke out against the Church; condemned Galileo the Inquisition
Catholic attempt to stop people from leaving the church Counter-Reformation
group set up during the Catholic Counter-Reformation; tried to convert people to Catholism Jesuits
three reasons for exploration God, Glory, and Gold
to travel around the globe; first done by Magellan, then Drake circumnavigate
major trade product from Asia spices
Spanish conqueror like Cortez and Pizarro conquistador
European settlement; American was this to England colony
global trade between eastern and western hemispheres Columbian Exchange
slaves worked on these in the new world plantations
term for gold and silver during the Age of Exploration bullion
3 legs of trade between Africa, New World, and Europe Triangular trade
leg of triangular trade when slaves were brought from Africa to the New World Middle Passage
major crop of the Caribbean sugar cane
many Native Americans died because Europeans brought this to the New World Diseases
Spanish laws which forced Native Americans into a kind of slavery encomiendas
belief that the power of rule came by God; Louis, Peter, Frederick, and the Stuarts believed in this divine right
type of monarch who has complete power absolute
French Protestants Huguenots
Peter the Great modernized his country when he made his people adapt to the customs and culture of of countries in the west of Europe westernization
French law which allowed for freedom of religion; meant mainly for the Huguenots; later taken away, or repeled, by Louis XIV Edict of Nantes
Frederick is known for building of the Prussian army; this is called __________. militarism
L'etat cest moi I am the state
Earth is the center of the universe geocentric theory
sun is the center of the universe; Copernicus heliocentric theory
steps used for experiments; developed by Francis Bacon scientific method
natural rights of John Locke life, liberty, and property
French term for philosopher philosophe
Age when reason replaced religion; marked an end to superstition Enlightenment
strong pride in your country or culture; spread by Napoleon; major reason for unification of Italy and Germany nationalism
signed by William and Mary; increased the power of the people and Parliament; lowered the power of the monarchs; signed during Glorious Revolution Bill of Rights
Monarchs power declined in England; while this governmental body increased in power; very similar to Congress in the US Parliament
English Civil War; group led by Cromwell; cut their hair short in protests to the nobility's custom of wearing long hair Roundheads
English Civil War; supporters of King Charles I Cavaliers
This event kicked James II off the throne of England and placed his daughter as ruler along with her husband; no bloodshed Glorious Revolution
Document written by Jefferson; marked the beginning of the American colonies split from their mother country, England; Jefferson used Locke's ideas in this document Declaration of Independence
first violent event of the French Revolution occured at this prison; celebrated like our July 4th Storming of the Bastille
when thousands of men were guillotined; led by Robespierre and the Jacobins; Louis XVI loses his head Reign of Terror
laws of Napoleon Napoleonic Code
Class that made up most of French society before the revolution Third Estate
when the lower class of French society refused to leave until their demands were met; named after the sports complex where they met Tennis Court Oath
meeting of European countries after Napoleon's fall; conservative; wanted to return Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution; successful diplomatic effort that kept peace in Europe for the next 40 years Congress of Vienna
people who think change is good; wanted more freedoms and rights liberals
people who are old fashioned or traditional; wanted a return to absolute monarchies; Congress of Vienna conservatives
uprising all throught Europe in reaction to the Congress of Vienna and against conservatism--unsuccessful Revolutions of 1848
belief of Bismarck to do whatever it takes to get the job done realpolitik
Machiavelli is a _________, meaning he saw the world for what it really was realist
War where the Prussians defeated the French; help in unifying Germany Franco-Prussian War
Garibaldi's army that united the south of Italy Red Shirts
Japenese leader or ruler Shogun
economic system; export more than import; colonies exist to provide raw materials for a mother country which would then be turned into a finished product mercantilism
Japan practiced a policy of _______________________ , meaning it tried to have no contact with Europeans isolationism
China set up _________ ____________ or cities set aside for trade with Europeans foreign enclaves
person who is talented in many fields; like Da Vinci Renaissance man
goods traded outside the producing country exports
materials found in nature (ex: cotton) raw
movement where land was fenced off from public use; resulted in farmers moving to the city for work Enclosure Movement
Time when cities grew; machine power replaced man power; improved technology Industrial Revolution
person who owns their own business entrepreneur
these were formed in order to give people better working conditions Labor Unions
the right to vote suffrage
governmental system where the belief is that if you work hard you will be rewarded; developed by Adam Smith; US capitalism
belief by Adam Smith that government should leave businesses alone laissez-faire
developed by Karl Marx; belief that everybody should be equal; government controls all factors of production commuism/socialism
term by Karl Marx that meant workers; he wanted them to rise up and rebel proletariat
European period when countries tried to conquer and control places all over the world; creation of empires imperialism
rebellion where Indian soldiers rebeled against the British rule of their country Sepoy Rebellion
business which controlled India East India Company
settlement ruled directly by a European country mother country
when European coutries took control of trading rights in other countries; China is a prime example sphere of influence
when a country is strongly influenced by a foreign, European country protectorate
Chinese rebellion against Christianity and foreigners Boxer Rebellion
non-violent protest; practiced by Mandela and Gandhi passive resistance/civil disobedience
countries form these for protection in case they are attacked alliances
World War I; consisted of Britain, France, and Russia Triple Entente
World War I; alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire Triple Alliance
Name the ship which contributed to the US entering World War I Lusitania
Message which caused the US to enter into World War I against Germany Zimmerman Note
Wilson's plan for peace 14 Points
Wilson's international peacekeeping body; US refused to become a member; ended in failure League of Nations
Period of tremendous economic failure; allowed Hitler to gain power in Germany; affected the entire world Great Depression
Event which started the Great Depression Stock Market Crash of 1929
belief in militarism and extreme nationalism fascism
when the government has complete control over the people; popular in Europe during the 1930s totalitarianism
Party of Hitler Nazism
Party of Mussolini Fascism
Lenin's plan to industrialize the Soviet Union New Economic Policy
Stalin's plan to modernize the Soviet Union collectivization
to try and avoid conflict; Britain and France did this to Hitler when he invaded Czechoslovakia and Austria appeasement
Hitler's lightening war blitzkrieg
international peacekeeping organization created after World War II United Nations
nickname for the strongest countries in the world during the Cold War; US and USSR superpowers
weapon developed during World War II and dropped on Japan Atomic Bomb
type of warfare used during World War I trench
World War II alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan Axis
World War II alliance of Britain, France, US, and Soviet Union Allied Powers
hatred of Jews anti-semetism
systemic killing of a whole group of people because of religious or ethnic differences genocides
largest genocide in Cambodia is known as this the Killing Fields
largest genocide in history; occurred during World War II against the Jews Holocaust
conflict between the US and USSR after World War II; no fighting cold war
belief that if one country fell to communism, all surrounding countries would soon become communist as well domino theory
statement which said the US would stop the spread of communism Truman Doctrine
Churchill's metaphor for the barrier of communist Europe and democratic Europe Iron Curtain
Cold War action to stop communism; divided the country into two along the 38th parallel Korean War
plan to rebuild Europe after World War II Marshall Plan
defensive alliance consisting of the US and western Europe during the Cold War NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.)
defensive alliance consisting of USSR and eastern satellites during the Cold War Warsaw Pact
Soviets built this in order to keep Germans from fleeing into democratic West Germany Berlin Wall
when the USSR placed missiles 90 miles off the coast of Florida; Kennedy was President during this event which almost started World War III Cuban Missile Crisis
policy that believed the more nuclear weapons one country builds, the less chance of war because other countries would be afraid deterrence or mutual destruction
competition between the US and USSR to build the most nuclear weapons arms race
Chinese group which believed in democracy; led by Chiang Kai Shek Nationalists
conflict during the Cold War; the US eventually pulled out and the entire country became communist Vietnam War
segregation in South Africa apartheid
free trade agreement between Mexico, Canada and the US NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement)
Oil production group OPEC
organization for free world trade WTO (World Trade Org.)
economic organization in Europe to try to compete with the US EU (European Union)
organization which gives loans to poor countries IMF (International Monetary Fund)
Chinese trade route Silk Road
Capital was Istanbul Ottoman Empire
Traded gold, salt in Africa Songhai
Built "Taj Mahjal" Mughal Empire
Indian empire of Mexico Aztec
Indian empire of Peru Inca
Pyramids, Astronomy Maya
Means "Rebirth" Renaissance
Renaissance began here Italy
Sistine Chapel, "David" Michelangelo
Plays,sonnets Shakespeare
Christian humanist Erasmus
World's largest religion Christianity
Main religion of India Hinduism
Main religion of SE Asia Buddhism
Main religion of North Africa Islam
North African trade route Sahara
Importance of trade routes exchange of ideas
Paper, compass, silk, porcelain China
Textiles, number system from Middle East
upset Martin Luther sale of indulgences
Luther belief "faith alone"
Luther protest Ninety-Five Theses
John Calvin belief predestination
Henry VIII issue divorce
Site of Reformation Germany
War between Catholics and Protestants Thirty Years' War
National Church of England Anglican
spread Catholic doctrine Jesuits
Trials to reinforce Catholic beliefs Inquisition
Gutenberg invention printing press
helped spread ideas of the Renaissance printing press
started school of navigation Prince Henry the Navigator
Sailed around Africa to India Vasco da Gama
discovered America Columbus
conquered Aztecs Hernan Cortez
conquered Inca Pizarro
explored Canada for France Jacques Cartier
2 religious groups that came to America Protestants, Catholics
another name for Native Americans indigenous peoples
corn, potatoes, tobacco originated here the Americas
horses, cattle, diseases came from here Europe
improved navigation Islamic sailors
3 areas the Triangular Trade system linked Europe, Africa, the Americas
main items traded as part of Triangular Trade slaves,sugar,rum
exported to Europe from America gold, silver
European nation that influenced Mexico and South America Spain
Traded coffee and ceramics Ottoman Empire
location of Mughal Empire Northern India
Famous Mughal tomb Taj Mahal
Product of India that Europeans wanted textiles
Nation that created foreign enclaves to control foreign trade China
powerless emperor, rule by shoguns Japan
adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences Japan
new economic practices like banking and money systems Commercial Revolution
early English political parties Whigs and Tories
Type of English government after 1689 Constitutional Monarchy
"Leviathan"; ruler must have authority Thomas Hobbes
the best government should be separated into 3 branches Montesquieu
U.S. documents that contain Enlightenment ideas Declaration, Constitution, Bill of Rights
Revolution which most influenced the French Revolution American Revolution
Paris prison stormed on July 14, 1789 Bastille
Thousands guillotined during this period of the French Revolution Reign of Terror
Came to power in France at the end of the Revolution Napoleon
Goal of Congress of Vienna balance of power
members of the Congress of Vienna were this Conservatives
Failed liberal revolutions in Europe in this year 1848
German composer Johann Sebastian Bach
Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Last to join in Italian unification Papal States
war which led to the creation of Germany Franco-Prusssian War
unified Germany by war and nationalism Bismarck
natural resources needed for industry coal, iron ore
British farmland fenced off Enclosure Movement
Movement of people to the cities Urbanization
group that grew the most during the industrial revolution middle class
hired to work in 19th c. factories women, children
increased the demand for slave labor on American plantations cotton gin
formed to improve working conditions labor unions
type of imperialism with direct control colony
type of imperialism with partial control protectorate
type of imperialism with trade rights sphere of influence
important canal in Egypt Suez
forced Germany to accept guilt for WWI Treaty of Versailles
Revolution here in 1917 Russia
Lenin's successor Joseph Stalin
group that led Russian Revolution Bolsheviks
created after WWI to administer colonies on a temporary basis mandate system
European nations who were mandate powers in the Middle East France, Great Britain
One cause of the Great Depression was German payments or________ reparations
High protective_________ helped cause the Great Depression tariffs
Millions in the Soviet Union died as a result of this Stalin policy Great Purge
hatred of Jews Anti-Semitism
Mussolini invaded this nation in 1935 Ethiopia
Area of China invaded by Japanese Manchuria
Name for 1944 Allied invasion of Europe D-Day
2 Japanese cities hit with atomic bombs Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Event which brought USA into WWII Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor
2 countries Hitler failed to conquer Great Britain, Soviet Union
U.S. President during most of WWII Franklin D. Roosevelt
Nazi decision to exterminate European Jews Final Solution/Holocaust
Genocide by Ottomans during WWI Armenian
Genocide of Tutsi minority by Hutu here Rwanda
Genocide of Muslims and Croats by Bosnian Serbs here Yugoslavia
Nazi war crimes trials Nuremberg
Western European military alliance formed in 1949 NATO
Part of Germany that became Communist after WWII East
Nation that became the dominant economy in Asia after WWII Japan
WWII conferance that divided Germany Yalta
U.S. President that created "containment" policy Truman
Name given to Soviet -controlled nations satellites
Part of Korea that started Korean War North Korea
Built in 1961; 7 miles long Berlin Wall
Missiles placed here in 1962 by USSR Cuba
separation of races in South Africa apartheid
yellow peril percieved threat of Japanese imperialism
Created by: mist73lee
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