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Chapter 2 ~ Medical

Abdominal cavity the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm.
Adenectomy The removal of all or part of the adenoid glands by surgery.
Adenocarcinoma A malignant tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
Adenoma A benign tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.
Adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland - aden/o/malacia.
Adenosclerosis abnormal hardening of a gland – aden/o/sclerosis.
Anaplasia loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor
Anatomy 1.The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, esp. as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts
Anomaly Something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected
Anterior Nearer the front, esp. situated in the front of the body, or nearer to the head or forepart
Aplasia The failure of an organ or tissue to develop or to function normally
Bloodborne transmission The spread of a disease through contact with or blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood.
Caudal means toward the lower part of the body.
Cephalic means toward the head.
Chromosomes the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell.
Communicable disease a disease that can be communicated from one person to another.
Congenital disorder an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth.
Cytoplasm The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Distal Situated away from the center of the body or from the point of attachment.
Dorsal Of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ.
Dysplasia The enlargement of an organ or tissue by the proliferation of cells of an abnormal type, as a developmental disorder or an early stage in the development of cancer
Endemic refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area.
Endocrine glands Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Epidemic A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
Epigastric region the upper central region of the abdomen.
Etiology The cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition
Exocrine glands The glands of external secretion They secrete mucus, perspiration, and digestive enzymes.
Functional disorder disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
Genetic disorder a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
Geriatrician the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people
Hemophilia A medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury.
Histology The study of the microscopic structure of tissues
Homeostasis 1.The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes
Hyperplasia 1.The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells, often as an initial stage in the development of cancer
Hypertrophy The enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of its cells
Hypogastric region an area of the human abdomen located below the navel.
Hypoplasia underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells.
Iatrogenic illness Any complication related to diagnosis and treatment of disease, regardless of whether the condition occurs as a known risk of a procedure or through errors of omission or commission
Idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
Infectious disease A disease caused by a microorganism or other agent, such as a bacterium, fungus, or virus, that enters the body of an organism.
Inguinal located in the groin.
Medial extending toward the middle
Messentery A fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.
Midsagittal plane A sagittal plane is an imaginary plane that travels vertically from the top to the bottom of the body, dividing it into left and right portions.
Nosocomial infection are infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit.
Pandemic An outbreak of such a disease
Pelvic cavity the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera
Peritoneum The serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum, typically caused by bacterial infection either via the blood or after rupture of an abdominal organ
Phenylketonuria An inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine that causes brain and nerve damage if untreated
Physiology The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts
Posterior Located behind a part or toward the rear of a structure.
Proximal Situated nearer to the center of the body or the point of attachment
Retroperitoneal Situated or occurring behind the peritoneum
Stem cells 1.An undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation
Thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is protected by the thoracic wall (thoracic cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
Transverse plane is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes.
Umbilicus The navel
Ventral toward or on or near the belly
Vector-borne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person
Created by: 156470