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APUSH Unit 6.

Chapters 22-26

After emancipation, many blacks traveled in order to... Find lost family members or seek new economic opportunities.
The Freedmen's Bureau was originally established to provide... Food, clothes, and education for emancipated slaves
Lincoln's original plan for Reconstruction in 1863 was that a state could be re-integrated into the Union when... 10% of its voters took an oath of allegiance to the Union and pledged to abide by emancipation.
The Black Codes passed by many of the Southern state governments in 1865 aimed to... Ensure a stable and subservient labor force under white control
The congressional elections of 1866 resulted in... A decisive defeat for Johnson and a veto-proof Republican Congress
In contrast to radical Republicans, moderate Republicans generally... Favored states' rights and opposed direct federal involvement in individuals' lives
Besides putting the South under the rule of federal soldiers, the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 required that... Southern states give blacks the vote as a condition of readmittance to the Union
The 14th Amendment provided for... Full citizenship and civil rights for former slaves
The 15th Amendment provided for... Voting rights for former slaves
Women's-rights leaders opposed the 14th and 15th Amendments because... The amendments granted citizenship and voting rights to black and white men but not to women
The right to vote encouraged southern black men to... Organize the Union League as a vehicle for political empowerment and self-defense
The radical Reconstruction regimes in the Southern states included... White Northerners, white Southerners, and blacks
Most of the Northern "carpetbaggers" were actually... Former Union soldiers, businessmen, or professionals
The radical Republicans' impeachment of President Andrew Johnson resulted in... A failure to convict and remove Johnson by a margin of only one vote
The skeptical public finally accepted Seward's purchase of Alaska because... Russia had been the only great power friendly to the Union during the Civil War
Common term for the blacks newly liberated from slavery Freedmen
Federal agency that greatly assisted blacks educationally but failed in other aid efforts Freedmen's Bureau
The largest African American denomination after slavery Baptist
Lincoln's 1863 program for a rapid Reconstruction of the South 10% Plan
The constitutional amendment freeing all slaves 13th Amendment
The harsh Southern state laws of 1865 that limited black rights and imposed restrictions to ensure a stable black labor supply Black Codes
The constitutional amendment granting civil rights to freed slaves and barring former Confederates from office 14th Amendment
Republican Reconstructionists who favored a more rapid restoration of Southern state governments and opposed radical plans for drastic economic transformation of the South Moderates
Republican Reconstructionists who favored keeping the South out of the federal government until a complete social and economic revolution was accomplished in the region Radicals
The black political organization that promoted self-help and defense of political rights Union League
Supreme Court ruling that military tribunals could not try civilians when the civil courts were open Ex Parte Milligan
Derogatory term for white Southerners who cooperated with the Republican Reconstruction governments Scalawags
Derogatory term for Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction and sometimes took part in Republican state governments Carpetbaggers
Constitutional amendment guaranteeing blacks the right to vote 15th Amendment
"Seward's Folly," acquired in 1867 from Russia Alaska
A constitutionally questionable law whose violation by President Johnson formed the basis for his impeachment Tenure of Office Act
The first congressional attempt to guarantee black rights in the South, passed over Johnson's veto Civil Rights Bill of 1866
Born a poor white southerner, he became the white South's champion against radical Reconstruction Andrew Johnson
Secretary of state who arranged an initially unpopular but valuable land deal in 1867 William Seward
Laws designed to stamp out Ku Klux Klan terrorism in the South Force Acts of 1870 and 1871
Black Republican senator from Mississippi during Reconstruction Hiram Revels
Secret organization that intimidated blacks and worked to restore white supremacy Ku Klux Klan
Blacks who left the South for Kansas and elsewhere during Reconstruction Exodusters
Congressional law that imposed military rule on the South and demanded harsh conditions for readmission of the seceded states Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
Beaten in the Senate chamber before the Civil War, he became the leader of Senate Republican radicals during Reconstruction Charles Sumner
Pro-black general who led an agency that tried to assist the freedmen Oliver O. Howard
Leading Black political organization during Reconstruction Union League
Author of the moderate "10%" Reconstruction plan that ran into congressional opposition Abraham Lincoln
The president pro tempore of the Senate who hoped to become president of the United States after Johnson's impeachment conviction Benjamin Wade
Leader of radical Republicans in the House of Representatives Thaddeus Stevens
Cause: The South's military defeat in the Civil War Effect: Destroyed the southern economy but strengthened Southern hatred of "yankees"
Cause: The Freedmen's Bureau Effect: Successfully educated former slaves but failed to provide much other assistance to them
Cause: The Black Codes of 1865 Effect: Imposed slaverylike restrictions on blacks and angered the North
Cause: The election of ex-Confederates to Congress in 1865 Effect: Prompted Republicans to refuse to seat Southern delegations in Congress
Cause: Johnson's "swing around the circle" in the election of 1866 Effect: Weakened support for mild Reconstruction policies and helped elect overwhelming Republican majorities to Congress
Cause: Military Reconstruction and the 14th ad 15th Amendments Effect: Forced all the Southern states to establish governments that upheld black voting and other civil rights
Cause: The "radical" Southern state Reconstruction governments Effect: Engaged in some corruption but also enacted many valuable social reforms
Cause: The Ku Klux Klan Effect: Intimidated black voters and tried to keep blacks "in their place"
Cause: The radical Republicans' hatred of Johnson Effect: Provoked a politically motivated trial to remove the president from office
Cause: The whole Reconstruction era Effect: Embittered white Southerners while doing little to really help blacks
Financiers Jim Fisk and Jay Gould tried to involve the Grant administration in a corrupt scheme to... Corner the gold market
Boss Tweed's widespread corruption was finally brought to a halt by... The journalistic exposes of The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast
The Credit Mobilier scandal involved... Railroad corporation fraud and the subsequent bribery of congressmen
Grant's greatest failing in the scandals that plagued his administration was... His toleration of corruption and loyalty to crooked friends
The depression of the 1870s led to increasing demands for... Inflation of the money supply by issuing more paper or silver currency
The political system of the "Gilded Age" was generally characterized by... Strong party loyalties, high voter turnout, and few disagreements on national issues
The primary goal for which all factions in both political parties contended during the Gilded Age was... Patronage
The key tradeoff featured in the Compromise of 1877 was that... Republicans got the presidency in exchange for the final removal of federal troops in the south
True or false: After the end of reconstruction, black farmers were forced to move to the Kansas and Oklahoma "dust bowl." False
The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson upholding "separate but equal" public facilities in effect legalized... The system of unequal segregation between the races
The great railroad strike of 1877 revealed... The growing threat of class warfare in response to the economic depression of the mid-1870s
The final result of the widespread anti-Chinese agitation in the West was... A Congressional law to prevent any further Chinese immigration
President James Garfield was assassinated by... A mentally unstable disappointed office seeker
In its first years, the Populist Party advocated, among other things... Free silver, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of the railroads, telegraph, and telephone
Grover Cleveland stirred a furious storm of protest when, in response to the extreme financial crisis of the 1890s, he... Borrowed $65 million from JP Morgan and other bankers in order to save the monetary gold standard
The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking Democrats with reminders of the Civil War (Waving the) Bloody Shirt
Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and others created a major Grant administration scandal Credit Mobilier
Short-lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration corruption Liberal Republican Party
Precious metal that "soft money" advocates demanded be coined again to compensate for the "Crime of '73" Silver
"Soft money" third party that pulled over a million votes and elected 14 congressmen in 1878 by advocating inflation Greenback Labor Party
Mark Twain's sarcastic name for the post-Civil War era, which emphasized its atmosphere of greed and corruption Gilded Age
Civil War Union veterans' organization that became a potent political bulwark of the Republican Party in the late 19th century Grand Army of the Republic
Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling that opposed all attempts at civil service reform Stalwarts
Republican party faction led by Senator James G. Blaine that paid lip service to government reform while still battling for patronage and spoils Half-Breeds
The complex political agreement between Republicans and Democrats that resolved the bitterly disputed election of 1876 Compromise of 1877
Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on the West Coast Chinese
System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit rather than patronage introduced by the Pendleton Act of 1883 Civil Service
Sky-high Republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread anger among farmers in the Midwest and South McKinley Tariff
Insurgent political party that gained widespread support among farmers in the 1890s Populists (People's Party)
Notorious clause in southern voting laws that exempted from literary tests and poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks Grandfather Clause
Great military leader whose presidency foundered in corruption and political ineptitude Ulysses S. Grant
Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the US gold market nearly succeeded in 1869 Jim Fisk
Heavyweight New York political boss whose widespread fraud landed him in jail in 1871 Boss Tweed
Colorful, eccentric newspaper editor who carried that Liberal Republican and Democratic banners against Grant in 1872 Horace Greeley
Wealthy New York financier whose bank collapse in 1872 set off an economic depression Jay Cooke
Irish-born leader of the anti-Chinese movement in California Denis Kearney
Radical Populist leader whose early success turned sour, and who then became a vicious racist Tom Watson
Imperious New York senator and leader of the "Stalwart" faction of Republicans Roscoe Conkling
Charming but corrupt "Half-Breed" Republican senator and presidential nominee in 1884 James G. Blaine
Winner of the contested 1876 election who presided over the end of Reconstruction and a sharp economic downturn Rutherford B. Hayes
President whose assassination after only a few months in office spurred the passage of a civil-service law James Garfield
Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s Jim Crow
First Democratic president since the Civil War; defender of laissez-faire economics and low tariffs Grover Cleveland
Eloquent young Congressman from Nebraska who became the most prominent advocate of "free silver" in the early 1890s William Jennings Bryan
Enormously wealthy banker whose secret bailout of the federal government in 1895 aroused fierce public anger JP Morgan
Cause: Favor-seeking businesspeople and corrupt politicians Effect: Caused numerous scandals during President Grant's administration
Cause: The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nest Effect: Forced Boss Tweed out of power and into jail
Cause: Upright Republicans' disgust with Grant administration scandals Effect: Led to the formation of the Liberal Republican party in 1872
Cause: The economic crash of the mid-1870s Effect: Caused unemployment, railroad strikes, and a demand for "cheap money"
Cause: Local cultural, moral, and religious differences Effect: Created fierce partisan competition and high voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed on most national issues
Cause: The Compromise of 1877 that settled the disputed Hayes-Tilden election Effect: Led to the withdrawal of troops from the South and the virtual end of federal reconstruction
White workers' resentment of Chinese labor competition Effect: Caused anti-Chinese violence and restrictions against Chinese immigration
Public shock at Garfield's assassination by Guiteau Effect: Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton Act
The 1890s depression and the drain of gold from the federal treasury Effect: Introduced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret loan from JP Morgan's banking syndicate
The inability of Populist leaders to overcome divisions between white and black farmers Effect: Led to failure of the third party revolt in the South and a growing racial backlash
The federal government contributed to the building of the national rail network by... Providing free grants of federal land to the railroad companies
The most efficient and public-minded of the early railroad-building industrialists was... James J. Hill
The railroad most significantly stimulated American industrialization by... Creating a single national market for raw materials and consumer goods
The railroad barons aroused considerable public opposition by practices such as... Stock watering and bribery of public officials
The railroads affected even the organization of time in the United States by... Introducing four standard time zones across the country
The first important federal law aimed at regulating American industry was... The Interstate Commerce Act
Financier JP Morgan exercised his economic power most effectively by... Serving as the middleman between American industrialists and foreign governments
Two late-19th century technological inventions that especially drew women out of the home and into the workforce were... The typewriter and the telephone
Andrew Carnegie's industrial system of "vertical integration" involved... The combination of all phases of the steel industry from mining to manufacturing into a single organization
The large trusts like Standard Oil and Swift and Armour justified their economic domination of their industries by claiming that... Only large-scale methods of production and distribution could provide superior products at low prices
The oil industry first thrived in the late 1880s by producing... Kerosene for oil lamps
Andrew Carnegie's "Gospel of Wealth" proclaimed his belief that... Those who acquired great wealth were morally responsible to use it for the public good
The attempt to create an industrialized "New South" in the late 19th century generally failed because... The South was discriminated against and held down as a supplier of raw materials to northern industry
For American workers, industrialization generally meant... A long-term rise in the standard of living but a loss of independence and control of work
In contrast to the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor advocated... Concentrating on improving wages and hours and avoiding general social reform
Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines Land grants
The original transcontinental railroad, commissioned by Congress, which built its rail line west from Omaha Union Pacific Railroad
The California-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanford, that employed Chinese laborers in building lines across the mountains Central Pacific Railroad
The northernmost of the transcontinental railroad lines, organized by economically wise and public-spirited industrialist James J. Hill Great Northern Railroad
Dishonest device by which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of their stocks and bonds Stock watering
Supreme Court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating railroads or other forms of interstate commerce Wabash case
Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry and prevent ruinous competition Interstate Commerce Commission
Late 19th century invention that revolutionized communication and created a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers Telephone
First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of "horizontal integration" that ruthlessly incorporated or destroyed competitors Standard Oil Company
The first billion dollar American corporation, organized when JP Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie United States Steel Corporation
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in a technologically advanced industrial South New South
Black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late 1860s Colored National Labor Union
Secret, ritualistic labor organization that enrolled many skilled and unskilled workers but collapsed suddenly after the Haymarket Square bombing Knights of Labor
Skilled labor organization, such as those of carpenters and printers, that were most successful in conducting strikes and raising wages Craft unions
The conservative labor group that successfully organized a minority of American workers but left others out American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
Former California governor and organizer of the Central Pacific Railroad Leland Stanford
Pro-business clergyman whose "Acres of Diamonds" speeches criticized the poor Russell Conwell
Public-spirited railroad builder who assisted farmers in the northern areas served by his rail lines James J. Hill
Aggressive eastern railroad builder and consolidator who scorned the law as an obstacle to his enterprise Cornelius Vanderbilt
Magazine illustrator who created a romantic of the new, independent woman Charles Dana Gibson
Former teacher of the deaf whose invention created an entire new industry Alexander Graham Bell
Inventive genius of industrialization who worked on devices such as the electric light, the phonograph, and the motion picture Thomas Edison
Scottish immigrant who organized a vast new industry on the principle of "vertical integration" Andrew Carnegie
Aggressive energy-industry monopolist who used tough means to build a trust based on "horizontal integration" John D. Rockefeller
The only businessperson in American wealthy enough to buy out Andrew Carnegie and organize the United States Steel Corporation J. Pierpont Morgan
Southern newspaper editor who tirelessly promoted industrialization as the salvation of the economically backward South Henry Grady
Eloquent leader of a secretive labor organization that made substantial gains in the 1880s before it suddenly collapsed Terence V. Powderly
Intellectual defender of laissez-faire capitalism who argued that the wealthy owed "nothing" to the poor William Graham Sumner
Illinois governor who pardoned the Haymarket anarchists John P. Altgeld
Organizer of a conservative craft-union group and advocate of "more" wages for skilled workers Samuel Gompers
Cause: Federal land grants and subsidies Effect: Encouraged the railroads to build their lines across the North American continent
Cause: The building of a transcontinental rail network Effect: Stimulated the growth of a huge unified national market for American manufactured goods
Cause: Corrupt financial dealings and political manipulations by the railroads Created a public demand for railroad regulation, such as the Interstate Commerce Act
Cause: New developments in steel making, oil refining, and communication Laid the technological basis for huge new industries and spectacular economic growth
Cause: The ruthless competitive techniques of Rockefeller and other industrialists Eliminated competition and created monopolistic "trusts" in many industries
Cause: The growing concentration of wealth and power in the new corporate "plutocracy" Fostered growing class divisions and public demands for restraints on corporate trusts
Cause: The North's use of discriminatory price practices against the South Kept the South in economic dependency as a poverty-stricken supplier of farm products and raw materials to the Northeast
Cause: The growing mechanization and depersonalization of factory work Often made laborers feel powerless and vulnerable to their well-off employers
Cause: The Haymarket Square bombing Helped destroy the Knights of Labor and increased public fear of labor agitation
The American Federation of Labor's concentration on skilled craft workers Created a strong but narrowly based union organization
The new cities' glittering consumer economy was symbolized especially by the rise of... Large, elegant department stores
One of the most difficult new problems generated by the rise of cities and the urban American lifestyle was... Disposing of large quantities of consumer-generated waste material
Two new technical developments of the late 19th century that contributed to the spectacular growth of American cities were... The electric trolley and the skyscraper
Countries from which many of the "New Immigrants" came included... Poland and Italy
Among the factors driving millions of European peasants from their homeland to American were... American food imports and religious persecution
Besides providing direct services to immigrants, the reformers of Hull House worked for general goals like... Antisweatshop laws to protect women and child laborers
The one immigrant group that was totally banned from America after 1882 as a result of nativist agitation was the... Chinese
Two religious groups that grew most dramatically because of the "New Immigration" were... Jews and Roman Catholics
The phrase "social Gospel" refers to... The efforts of some Christian reformers to apply their religious beliefs to new social problems
Besides aiding immigrants and promoting social reforms, settlement houses like Jane Addams's Hull House demonstrated that... The cities offered new challenges and opportunities for women
Traditional American Protestant religion received a substantial blow from... The biological ideas of Charles Darwin
Unlike Booker T. Washington, WEB Du Bois (the smoke king) (he is black) advocated... Integration and social equality for blacks
In the late 19th century, American colleges and universities benefited especially from... Federal and state "land grant" assistance and the private philanthropy of wealthy donors
American social reformers like Henry George and Edward Bellamy advocated... Utopian reforms to end poverty and eliminate class conflict
Authors like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and Jack London turned American literature toward a greater concern with... Social realism and contemporary problems
High-rise urban buildings that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers Dumbbell tenement
Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe New Immigration
Immigrants who came to America for a time and then returned to their native land Birds of passage
The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems Social gospel
Settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's involvement in urban social reform Hull House
Profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened new opportunities for women while engaging urban problems Social work
Nativist organization that attacked "New Immigrants" and Roman Catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s American Protective Association
The church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result of the "New Immigration" Roman Catholicism
Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts Tuskegee Institute
Organization founded by WEB Du Bois (the smoke king) (he is black) and others to advance black social and economic equality National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Henry George's best selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land Progress and Poverty
Federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents Comstock Law
Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers Women and Economics
Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Chicago-based architect whose high-rise Louis Sullivan
Leading Protestant advocate of the "social gospel" who tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems Walter Rauschenbusch
Leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women Jane Addams
Popular evangelical preacher who brought the tradition of old-time revivalism to the industrial city Dwight L. Moody
Author and founder of a popular new religion based on principles of spiritual healing Mary Baker Eddy
Former slave who promoted industrial education and economic opportunity but not social equality for blacks Booker T. Washington
Harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black social and economic equality through the leadership of a "talented tenth" WEB Du Bois (the smoke king) (he is black)
Harvard scholar who made original contributions to modern psychology and philosophy William James
Controversial reformer whose book Progress and Poverty advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on land Henry George
Gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death Emily Dickinson
Midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literature based on social realism and humor Mark Twain
Radical feminist propagandist whose eloquent attacks on conventional social morality shocked many Americans in the 1870s Victoria Woodhull
Vigorous 19th century crusader for sexual "purity" who used federal law to enforce his moral views Anthony Comstock
Brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative cooking and child-care arrangements to promote women's economic independence and equality Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Well-connected and socially prominent historian who feared modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and culture of the past Henry Adams
Cause: New industrial jobs and urban excitement Lured millions of rural Americans off the farms and into the cities
Cause: Uncontrolled rapid growth and the "New Immigration" from Europe Created intense poverty and other problems in the crowded urban slums
Cause: Cheap American grain exports to Europe Helped uproot European peasants from their ancestral lands and sent them seeking new opportunities in America and elsewhere
Cause: The cultural strangeness and poverty of southern and eastern European immigrants Provoked sharp hostility from some native-born Americans and organized labor groups
Cause: Social gospel ministers and settlement-house workers Assisted immigrants and other slum dwellers and pricked middle-class consciences about urban problems
Cause: Darwinian science and growing urban materialism Weakened the religious influence in American society and created divisions within the churches
Cause: Government land grants and private philanthropy Supported the substantial improvements in American undergraduate and graduate education in the late 19th century
Cause: Popular newspapers and "yellow journalism" Encouraged the mass urban public's taste for scandal and sensation
Cause: Changes in moral and sexual attitudes Created sharp divisions about the "new morality" and issues such as divorce
Cause: The difficulties of family life in the industrial city Led women and men to delay marriage and have fewer children
Western Indians offered strong resistance to white expansion through their effective use of... Repeating rifles and horses
Intertribal warfare among Plains Indians increased in the late 19th century because of... Growing competition for the rapidly dwindling hunting grounds
The federal government's attempt to confine Indians to certain areas through formal treaties was largely ineffective because... The nomadic Plains Indians largely rejected the idea of formal authority and defined territory
The warfare that led up to the Battle of Little Big Horn was set off by... White intrusions after the discovery of gold in the sacred Black Hills
Indian resistance was finally subdued because... The coming of the railroad led to the destruction of the buffalo and the Indians' way of life
The federal government attempted to forced Indians away from their traditional values and customs by... Creating a network of children's boarding schools and white "field matrons"
Both the mining and cattle frontiers saw... A movement from individual operations to large-scale corporate businesses
The problem of developing agriculture in the arid West was solved most successfully through... The use of irrigation from dammed western rivers
The "safety valve" theory of the frontier holds that... Unemployed city dwellers could move west and thus relieve labor conflict in the East
True or false: The problem of applying new technologies in a hostile wilderness made the trans-Mississippi West a unique part of the American frontier experience. False
By the 1880s, most western farmers faced hard times because... They were forced to sell their grain at low prices in a depressed world market
True or false: Creation of a national system of unemployment insurance and old-age pensions was among the political goals advocated by the Populist Party. False
The US government's response to the Pullman strike aroused great anger from organized labor because... It seemed to represent "government by injunction" designed to destroy labor unions
William Jennings Bryan gained the Democratic nomination in 1896 because he strongly advocated... Unlimited coinage of silver in order to inflate currency
McKinley defeated Bryan primarily because he was able to win the support of... Eastern wage earners and city dwellers
Major northern Plains Indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war against the US Army, 1876-1877 Sioux
Southwestern Indian tribe led by Geronimo that carried out some of the last fighting against white conquest Apaches
Generally poor areas where vanquished Indians were eventually confined under federal control Reservations
Indian religious movement, originating out of the sacred Sun Dance that the federal government attempted to stamp out in 1890 Ghost Dance
Federal law that attempted to dissolve tribal landholding and establish Indians as individual farmers Dawes Severalty Act
Huge silver and gold deposit that brought wealth and statehood to Nevada Comstock Lode
General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the railroad terminals of Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming Long drive
Federal law that offered generous land opportunities to poorer farmers but also provided the unscrupulous with opportunities for hoaxes and fraud Homestead Act
Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless plains Barbed wire
Former "Indian territory" where "sooners" tried to get the jump on "boomers" when it was opened for settlement in 1889 Oklahoma
Third political party that emerged in the 1890s to express rural grievances and mount major attacks on the Democrats and Republicans Populists (People's Party)
Popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro-silver arguments triumphing over the traditional views of bankers and economics professors Coin's Financial School
Bitter labor conflict in Chicago that brought federal intervention and the jailing of union leader Eugene V. Debs Pullman strike
Spectacular convention speech by a young pro-silver advocate that brought him the Democratic presidential nomination in 1896 Cross of Gold speech
Popular term for those who favored the "status quo" in metal money and opposed the pro-silver Bryanites in 1896 "Goldbugs"
Site of Indian massacre by militia forces in 1864 Sand Creek, Colorado
Site of major US Army defeat in the Sioux War of 1876-1877 Little Big Horn
Leader of the Sioux during wars of 1876-1877 Sitting Bull
Leader of the Nez Perce tribe who conducted a brilliant but unsuccessful military campaign in 1877 Chief Joseph
Leader of the Apaches of Arizona in their warfare with the whites Geronimo
Massachusetts writer whose books aroused sympathy for the plight of the Native Americans Helen Hunt Jackson
Explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of the 100th meridian John Wesley Powell
Author of the popular pro-silver pamphlet "Coin's Financial School" William Hope Harvey
Railway union leader who converted to socialism while serving jail time during the Pullman strike Eugene V. Debs
Former Civil War general and Granger who ran as the Greenback Labor party candidate for president in 1880 James B. Weaver
Eloquent Kansas Populist who urged farmers to "raise less corn and more hell" Mary E. Lease
Ohio industrialist and organizer of McKinley's victory over Bryan in the election of 1896 Mark Hanna
Cause: The encroachment of white settlement and the violation of treaties with Indians Led to nearly constant warfare with Plains Indians from 1868 to about 1890
Cause: Railroad building, disease, and the destruction of the buffalo Decimated Indian populations and hastened their defeat at the hands of advancing whites
Cause: Reformers' attempts to make Native Americans conform to white ways Further undermined Native Americans' traditional tribal culture and morale
Cause: The coming of big-business mining and stock-raising to the West Ended the romantic, colorful era of the miners' and cattlemen's frontier
Cause: "Dry farming," barbed wire, and irrigation Made it possible to farm the dry, treeless areas of the Great Plains and the West
Cause: The passing of the frontier of 1890 Created new psychological and economic problems for a nation accustomed to a boundlessly open West
Cause: The growing economic specialization of western farmers Made settlers vulnerable to vast industrial and market forces beyond their control
Cause: The rise of the Populist Party in the early 1890s Threatened the two-party domination of American politics by the Democrats and Republicans
Cause: The economic depression that began in 1893 Caused widespread protests and strikes like the one against the Pullman Company in Chicago
Cause: The return of prosperity after 1897 and new gold discoveries in Alaska, South Africa, and elsewhere Effectively ended the free-silver agitation and the domination of the money question in American politics
Created by: ejustice75
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