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AP Euro Ch. 25 Test

West and the World (Imperialism)

QuestionAnswer
migration chain when whole villages move thousands of miles away together due to one strong individual who blazed the way
great white walls laws designed by Americans and Australians to keep Asians from settling in their countries in the 1880s because they came into conflict with local populations
Afrikaners descendants of the Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony in southern Africa
Berlin conference meeting of European leaders in 1884 and 1885 in order to lay down some basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa; no single European country could claim the entire continent; agreed to work to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa
white man’s burden idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living
Great Rebellion the 1857 and 1858 insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army that spread throughout northern and central India before finally being crushed
Meiji Restoration in 1867 patriotic samurai seized control of government with little bloodshed, leading to the subsequent modernization of Japan
battle cry of Meiji “Enrich the state and strengthen the armed forces.”
hundred days of reform a series of Western-style reforms launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge
shogun held the real power in Japan
samurai warrior nobility
Third World a term that refers to the non-industrialized nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a single unit
khedive an Egyptian prince
Social Darwinism idea that there is competition among races with some being subordinate and others being dominant
swallows After harvesting their own crops in Italy, they traveled to Argentina to harvest wheat and then returned to Italy for the spring planting.
Muhammad Ali Albanian-born, Turkish general who was appointed governor of Egypt in 1805
Muhammad Ali drafted illiterate peasants for the army which he hired French and Italian officers for
Muhammad Ali reformed the Egyptian government, cultivated lands, improved communication, encouraged commercial agricultural development, and established an independent state
Ismail • Muhammad Ali’s grandson
Ismail • 1863 – began rule as khedive (prince)
Ismail • westernizing autocrat
Ismail • promoted large irrigation networks which caused cotton production and exports to Europe to grow
Ismail • Suez Canal was completed by a French company in 1869 with his help
Ismail • Arabic replaced Turkish as language
Ismail • expensive ideas
Ismail • eventually was forced by France and Britain to appoint France and Britain financial ministers to pay off debt
Ismail • forced to abdicate to his son Tewfiq
Ahmed Arabi formed the Egyptian Nationalist Party
Cecil Rhodes • led the British in the Cape Colony to establish protectorates in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia
Jules Ferry French who created the idea of the Berlin conference with Bismarck
Jules Ferry French who took Indochina in the 1800s
Rudyard Kipling 1899 – influential British writer who wrote a poem called the “White Man’s Burden”
J.A. Hobson wrote Imperialism (only certain special interest groups benefited from colonies, not the whole country)
against social Darwinian though Joseph Conrad and J.A. Hobson
Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness (selfishness of Europeans in civilizing Africa)
Commodore Matthew Perry American who arrived in Edo Bay (Tokyo) to demand the opening of Japanese ports through the use of gunboat diplomacy
Commodore Matthew Perry settled in Yokohama, Japan in 1853
Commodore Matthew Perry signed a treaty with Japan to open 2 of their ports to permit trade
Tzu Hsi empress dowager ruled in place of son used shrewd insight and vigorous action to revitalize bureaucracy
Tzu Hsi had a palace coup – imprisoned the emperor, rejected reform, and put reactionary officials in charge, effectively quelling any inkling of a revolution
Tzu Hsi declared war on the West after encouraging the Boxers to kill missionaries a Chinese Christians
Tzu Hsi caused the eventual demise of the Qing Dynasty
Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt • 1805-1848 • encouraged commercial agriculture
Treaty of Nanking • 1842 • imperial government required to give Hong Kong to Britain forever • pay indemnity of $100 million • open 4 cities for unlimited foreign trade • low tariffs
Perry opens Japan for trade • 1853 • Matthew Perry arrived in Edo Bay (Tokyo) and settled in Yokohama • used gunboat diplomacy to get Japanese to open 2 ports and to allow for international trade
Britain crushes Great Rebellion in India • 1857-1858 • insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army that spread throughout northern and central India before finally being crushed • ruled them independently until 1947
Japanese antiforeign terrorism and antigovernment assassinations • 1858-1867
reign of Ismail in Egypt • 1863-1879
Meiji Restoration in Japan • 1867 • patriotic samurai seized control of government with little bloodshed which led to the subsequent modernization of Japan
completion of Suez Canal • 1869 • completed with Ismail and a French company • allowed for quicker and easier transportation • also allowed British women to travel to India
Japan opened Korea with gunboat diplomacy • 1876
Egyptian Nationalist party formed • 1879 • formed under Colonel Ahmed Arabi
most of Africa falls under Euro rule • 1880-1900 • France signed treaty of protection with Leopold II to establish French protectorate on bank of Congo River •Berlin Conference – meeting of Euro leaders in 1884-85 to give basic rules for imperialist competition in Africa
Russian expansion reaches borders of Afghanistan • 1885
Indian National Congress • 1885 • formed of mostly Hindus • wanted equality and self-government
Japand defeated China in war over Korea • 1894
Sino-Japanese War • 1894-1895 • caused others to see China as weak and easy to form protectorates over • foreign advancement increased after 1894
Japan took Formosa (Taiwan) • 1895
US takes over Philippines • 1898 • captures from Spanish in the Spanish-American War
hundred days of reform in China • 1898 • a series of Western-style reforms by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge
Boxers attack • killed more than 200 foreign missionaries and thousands of Chinese Christians • attacked Beijing embassies
Kipling writes "The White Man's Bruden" • 1899 • the most influential British writer who wrote about this
South African War • 1899-1902
Joseph Conrad writes Heart of Darkness • 1902 • selfishness of Europeans in civilizing Africa • rebelled against social Darwinian thought
J.A. Hobson writes Imperialism • 1902 • acquiring colonies was because of unregulated capitalism (rich needed to find outlets for surplus capital) • only certain special interest groups benefited from colonies, not the whole country • rebelled against social Darwinian thought
Japan attacked Russia and won foothold over the Chinese protectorate of Port Arthur • 1904
Western-style republic replaces China's Qing Dynasty • 1912 • spontaneous uprising by antiforeign and antigovernment revolutionary groups ended Qing Dynasty • coalition of revolutionaries made a Western republic and called for elected parliament
Panama Canal opens • 1914 • shortened transportation time
income per person __________ in the Third World from ____ to ____ stagnated; 1913; 1945
How did Europes increase in international commerce in the 19th century stimulate economic development between nations? • Britain created export markets for its industrial output and was the world’s largest importer of goods • access to Britain’s market stimulated the development of mines and plantations in non-Western areas
How did railroads aid European countries? • reduced transportation costs • opened new economic opportunities • connected seaports with inland cities in 3rd world rather than causing new cities to be built
How did steam boats and the opening of the Panema and Suez Canals aid Europe? • steam supplanted sails on the ocean • transportation costs decreased • opening of Suez and Panama Canals shortened transport time • ports modernized
What could Asians, AFricans, and Latin Americans do thanks to the revolution in land and sea transport? ship tropical products and raw materials for industry
Because of the revolution in land and sea transport, what were Europeans encouraged to do? open up new territories and develop ag products and materials to sale
How did communication develop and change? • transoceanic telegraph cables caused rapid communication with finance centers around the world
What did investments in the 1840s allow white settlers to do, and what was the most profitable industry to invest in? • most profitable opportunities for investment in railroad construction • enabled white settlers to buy European railroads to develop sources for cheap food and raw materials
Who were victims of European advancements? Native Americans and Australian aborigines
Describe the Opium Wars. opium=illegal in China ~ British grew it in India and sold it in China ~ 1836 - British merchants wanted colony within China with own rules ~ Qing gov forced British into Hong Kong ~ occupied coastal cities ~ Treaty of Nanking
Describe the development of commercial agriculture in Egypt. peasants were poor but self-sufficient ~ Ali's family and high-ranking officials took control of common land and made peasants tenants and forced them to grow cash crops like rice and cotton
What occured in Egypt as a reaction to foreign financial control? caused a violent nationalistic reaction with the Egyptian Nationalist Party ~ bloody anti-European riots-1882 ~ Tewfiq had to flee to British ships which then bombarded Alexandria ~ British occupied all of Egypt until 1956
How did the British occupation of Egypt transform the country positively? resulted in tax reforms and better peasant life ~ foreign bondholders received their payment ~ provided new model for European expansion based on military force, political domination, and beneficial reform
Why did the population of Europe double in the 1900s, and how many people does this equate to? birthrates and death rates declined because the standard of living rose and medicine was revolutionized but the population doubled to about 432 million
Immigration: how many left, where did they go, and why? 60 million left (11 million between 1900-1910) ~ went to North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Siberia ~ moved to find opportunity, land, and food
Describe immigration in Britain and Ireland. o from 1840s on o rural poverty o movement of skilled industrial technicians o 1/3 of all migrants came from the British Isles
Describe immigration in Germany. o grew after 1830 o peaked in 1850s and 1880s o then declined rapidly because of rapid industrialization that provided for jobs at home
Describe immigration in Italy. more left the country before 1914 ~ due to slow industrial growth and because of agriculture ~ moved to find cheap wheat in N. America, Argentina, and Brazil
How many people did the US attract? less than 1/2 of Europeans but the most overall
How many people returned to their home country later? What factor determined whether or not they would return home? about ½ to 1/3 eventually returned home ~ the availability of land determined whether or not they would return to their native country
Describe Asian migrants. 3 million Asians moved abroad before 1920 ~ most went as indentured laborers ~ worked in gold mines or on plantations in Latin America, southern Asia, Africa, California, Hawaii, and Australia ~ 1840s-Cuban gov recruited Chinese as field hands
Explain the British control over Cape Town. took over Cape town during wars of Napoleon I which caused Dutch farmers to make the Great Trek into the inside of the country to fight the Zulu and Xhosa for land
What countries was Africa divided between? Britain, France, Germany, and Italy
What did the British do in Africa? • developed rich gold mines • conquered South Africans • Afrikaners used large numbers to take over political power from British settlers
What did Leopold II of Belgium try to do, and what was the French reaction to this? 1861–plan of expansion ~ 1876–sent Henry M. Stanley, to central Af. ~ established trading spots, treaties w/ Af. chiefs, and claim country ~ Fr. sent Pierre de Brazza~ 1880-Fr. sign treaty of protection w/Teke chief to get protectorate on Congo River bank
Battle of Omduman • British were attacked by Muslims who were killed my newly invented British Maxim machine guns
Why were colonies so important to European rulers? increase in nationalism and competition among races ~ needed for national security and military power ~ cheap raw materials ~ manipulated colonial issues to distract citizens from issues at home and create a feeling of unity ~ white man's burden
Where did Christian missionaries succeed and fail? success in Africa and failures in India, China, and Islamic world
Describe the white rule in India. all-white civil service ~ 3,000 official for 300 million people ~ backed by white officers and native troops ~ job discrimination and social segregation
How did British families live in India? • families lived in own separate communities with large houses and servants • wife’s responsibility to maintain the household – authoritarianism among women • reformers, missionaries, and feminists wished to improve the lives of Indian women by educatio
How was Indian education altered? established modern system of secondary education with English instruction
Who became the middle man between British and the native Indians? high-caste Hindus who had been educated in Europe
Name the 3 things that contributed to the economic development in India. irrigation projects for agriculture ~ 3rd largest railroad in the world (communication) ~ tea and jute plantations
What did the British do to create a unified, powerful state in India? put everyone under the same general system of law and administration by obliterating kingdoms
Why did the Indian National Congress want complete independence? inequality between Indians and Europeans ~ peasants accepted this, but educated elite could not ~ inequality based on dictatorship
What changes did the new Japanese government decide to make, politically speaking? Japanese government decided to stop antiforeign attacks ~ reformed Japan to mimic Western military and industrial aspects ~ 1871 – abolished feudal structure ~ formed a unified state ~ dismantled four-class legal system ~ authoritarian constitution
What changes did the new Japanese government decide to make, socially speaking? declared social equality (like French Revolution) ~ freedom of traveling
What changes did the new Japanese government decide to make, speaking of military? government-stimulated economy ~ built railroads and modern factories
What changes did the new Japanese government decide to make, economically speaking? modern navy ~ 3 year military service – compulsory for all males ~ reorganized along European ideals
What changes did the new Japanese government decide to make, technologically speaking? adapted from West for use in industry, medicine, and education ~ encouraged to study abroad ~ paid foreign experts to teach Japanese
What did the Sino-Japanese War reveal about China? Their loss caused them to look weak which allowed an increase in foreign encroachement and a demand for protectorates.
What sort of punishment was placed upon China after the Boxers' attack on Beijing, missionaries, and Chinese Christians? Beijing was occupied ~ 1901-had to accept list of penalties including an indemnity to be paid over 40 years
What happened after the Chinese war? anarchy and foreign influence spread as power and prestige of Qing Dynasty weakened ~ 1912–spontaneous uprising by antiforeign and antigovernment revolutionary groups ended Qing Dynasty ~ revolutionaries made West republic and had elected parliament
Created by: spschoolstudy