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IU MED TERM Chap 6 Terms & Def

Chap 6 TermsChap 6 Definitions
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus rumbuling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestines
cachexia general lack of nutrition and wasting occuring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance
cholelithiasis presence or formation of gallstones in the galbladder or common bile duct
Crohn disease, regional enteritis chronic inflammation, usually of the ilieum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract
cirrhosis chronic, irreversible, degenerative disease of the liver
colic spasam in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain, especially in the colon
deglutition act of swallowing
dysentery inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, possibly caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, that results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia epigastric discomfort felt after eating: also called indigestion
dysphagia inability or difficulty in swallowing: also called aphagia
eructation producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
fecalith fecal concretion
flatus gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis offensive or "bad" breath
hematemesis vomiting of blood
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
obstipation intestinal obstruction; also called severe constipation
malabsorption syndrome symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
oral leukoplakia formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric orifice, possibly due to excessive thickening of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus)
regurgitation backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach or the backward flow of blood through a defective heart valve
steatorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest
endoscopy visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
upper GI endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
lower GI endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy)
hepatitis panel panel of blood test that can identify the specific virus - hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV) causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver function test tests involing measurment of the levels of certain enzymes, bbilirubin, and various proteins
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture microbiological procedure in which microorganisms in feces are grown on media or nutrient material to identify specific pathogens
stool guaiac applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of blood in the feces; also called Hemocult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
barium enema radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
barium swallow radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
cholecystography radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT) scan imaging technique achieved by rotatining an x-ray emiotter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called
endoscopic retograde cholangiopancreatography endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography radiographic examination of the structure of the bile ducts
sialography radiography examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ultrasonography (US) image produced by using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) and displaying the reflected "echoes" on a monitor (A computer analyzes the reflected echoes and converts them into an image on a video monitor); also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and
abdominal ultrasound visualization of the abdominal arota, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
biopsy representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
nasogastric intubation insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowe segments to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal anastomosis surgical connection of the oleum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
intestinal anastomosis surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
colostomy creation of an opening of some portion of the colon thropugh the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy procedure for eliminating a stone within the urinary system or gallbladder by crushing the stone surgically or using a noninvasive method, such as ultrasonic shock waves, to shatter it
extracorporeal shockwave use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts
liver biopsy use of a large-bore needle to remove a core of liver tissue for histological examination
polypectomy excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylous; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Created by: khandoggy