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A&P I Ch.1&2

Ch. 1 Introduction- anatomy

cellular level cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism and are the smallest living units in the human body
tissue level groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function
organ level organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions, and recognizable shapes
System level consists of related organs that have a common function
Organismal level an organism is any living individual
what are major organs of the Integumentary system? skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, fingernails and toenails
what are the functions of the Integumentary system? forms the external body covering; protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D;protects the body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold
what are major organs of the skeletal system? bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments
what are the functions of the skeletal system? protects and supports body organs; provides the framework for muscles; provides the surface area for muscle attachments;aids body movements;site of blood cell formation; stores minerals and lipids(fats)
what are major organs of the muscular system? muscles and tendons
what are the functions of the muscular system? Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression,Maintains posture,Produces heat
what are major organs of the Nervous system? brain, spinal column, nerves n special sense organs such as eyes and ears
what are the functions of the Nervous system? Is the fast-acting control system of the body,Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands, generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities;detects changes in body's internal and external environments, interprets the
what are major organs of the cardiovascular system? the heart, blood, and blood vessels
what is the functions of the cardiovascular system? heart pumps blood,blood vessels transport blood throughout the body,blood helps regulate acid-base balance,temperature;blood components help defend against disease n repair damaged blood vessels
what are major organs of the Lymphatic and Immune system? red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic fluid, tosils,and lymphatic vessels;cells that carry out immune responses (B cells,T cells)
what are the functions of the Lymphatic and Immune system? returns proteins n fluid to blood,Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood,Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream,Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
what are major organs of the Respiratory system? nasal cavity, pharynx(throat), trachea(windpipe),larynx(voice box), bronchi, and lungs
what are the functions of Respiratory system? Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
what are major organs of the Digestive system? oral cavity:mouth, pharynx(throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver;accessory organs that assist in digestive processes such as the salivary glands,liver,gallbladder n pancreas
what are the functions of Digestive system? Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood,Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
what are major organs of the Urinary system? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
what are the functions of Urinary system? Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body,Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood,Release hormone to increase red blood cell production
what are major organs of the Male reproductive system? prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens
what are the functions of Male reproductive system? Main function is the production of offspring,Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones,Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
what are major organs of the female reproductive system? mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina,
what are the functions of the female reproductive system? Main function is the production of offspring,Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones,Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus,Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn
what are major organs of the Endocrine system? hormone-producing glands(pineal gland,hypothalamus,pituitary gland,thymus,thyroid gland,parathyroid glands,adrenal glands,pancreas,ovaries,n testis)and hormone-producing cells in several other organs
what are the functions of the Endocrine system? Regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are transported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ
What two systems does the pancreas belong to? endocrine n digestive
What two systems that have the primary responsibility for regulating body activities? endocrine n Nervous
What is the anatomical position? the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
planes and sections: Sagittal plane divides the body or organ into right and left sides
Midsagittal plane (median plane) equal right and left sides
Parasagittal plane divides the body into unequal right and left sides
Frontal (coronal) plane into anterior and posterior portions
Transverse plane(horizontal or crossection) into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
Oblique plane passes through the body or organ at an angle
Directional Terms:Superior and inferior toward and away from the head, respectively
Anterior and posterior toward the front and back of the body
Medial, lateral, and intermediate toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure
Proximal and distal closer to and farther from the origin of the body
Superficial and deep toward and away from the body surface
what are serous membranes? slippery double-layered membrane that covers the vicera within the thoracic n abdominal cavities n also lines the walls of the thorax n abdomen p.17
What is the pleural? serous membrane associated with the lungs
What is pericardium? the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity
what is peritoneum? is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
What are the two major cavities of the body? dorsal(posterior) and ventral(anterior)
What are the subdivisions of the dorsal cavity? cranial n vertebral
what organs are located in cranial n vertebral cavities? brain and spinal cord
What are the subdivisions of the ventral cavity? thoracic and abdominopelvic
What organ separates the subdivisions(thoracic and abdominopelvic)? dome-shaped diaphragm
What major organs are located in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? T:lungs,heart,thymus,esophagus,trachea, n large blood vessels AP:stomach,intestines,spleen,liver, n other organs,urinary bladder,reproductive organs, n rectum
What is the mediastinum? contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
What organs does mediastinum contain? it is not an organ but is composed of all organs in the thoracic cavity execept lungs & pleura;heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and large blood vessels
What are the functions of the proteins of the plasma membrane? 1.Channel proteins:selectively allow a single type ion to pass through.2.Transporters (carrier proteins:transport 3.Receptors:serve as cellular recognition sites for hormones, glucose.4.Enzymes.5.Cell-identify markers(glycoproteins n glycolipids:i.e.ABO b
What is the permeability of the cell membranes organelle? selectively permeable
What are the primary functions Cytoskeleton? aids movement of organelles within the cell, of chromosome during cell division,n of whole cells such as phagocytes.
What are the primary functions of Ribosomes? Free ribosomes or polysomes: synthesis of proteins, which are used inside the cell
What are the primary functions of Rough(granular) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)? site of synthesis of proteins; Fate of proteins – move to Golgi apparatus for insertion into organelles (such as lysosomes) or secretory vesicle, which fuse with the plasma membrane and release the proteins into the ECF.
What are the primary functions of smooth(agranular)Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)? site of fatty acid, phospholipid, or steroid synthesis; detoxify chemicals; store and release calcium in muscle cells
What are the primary functions of Golgi complex(apparatus,body)? sorts, packages, and delivers cellular protein products to plasma membrane for eventual secretion; may add carbohydrates during the processing
What are the primary functions of Lysosomes? “digestive system” of cell; breakdown large substances in the cell; remove worn-out organelles (autophagy); destroy bacteria in phagocytic white blood cells; may destroy host cell (autolysis)
What are the primary functions of Peroxisomes? removal of toxic substances such as oxygen radicals and hydrogen peroxide
What are the primary functions of mitochodrion (mitochondria)? “powerhouse” of cell; generates ATP through reactions of aerobic cellular respiration
What are the primary functions of Nucleus? control cellular structure, direct cellular activities, produce ribosomes in nucleoli.fxn:houses the DNA, which dictates cellular function n protein synthesis
1.What are the differences between free ribosomes and rough ER in terms of their structures and functions? free ribosomes are floating in the cell, can't go outside cell. Rough ER has ribosomes attached & can go outside cell
What structures form the cilia and flagella? cytoskeleton= microtubules
What is the structure and function of the nucleus? “brain” of cell;nuclear envelope w/ pores,nucleoli, chromatin.surrounded by double-layered nuclear envelope.fxn:houses the DNA, which dictates cellular function n protein synthesis
What are the primary functions Cytoskeleton? serves as a scaffold that helps to determine a cell's shape n to organize the cellular contents.structural support of cell;movement n contraction
2.What are the differences between free ribosomes and rough ER in terms of their structures and functions? free ribosomes=sinthesize proteins used in the cytosol,are unattached to any structure in the cytoplasm they primary synthesize proteins used inside the cell.Rough ER= synthesize proteins destined for insertion in the plasma membrane or secretion from the
3.continued free ribosomes & rough ER cell. membrane-bound ribosomes, attach to the nuclear membrane & to an extensively folded membrane called ER.these ribosomes synthesize proteins destined for specific organelles, for insertion in the plasma membrane, or for export from the cell.
palpation examination by application of hands/fingers to detect evidence of disease
endoscopy Inspection of internal body organs and cavities using a scope and camera attached to a flexible tube.
CT scan X ray technique which produces a cross sectional image in a selected plane of view; computer generated; provides a 3-D prospective with better resolution than conventional X-ray.
dissection To cut apart for study purpose
radiography Process of film exposure using X-ray passing through the body to obtain pictures of internal structure; dense tissue is better visualized; limited to 2-dimensions.
biopsy Tissue sampling by excision for diagnostic examination.
MRI Large magnetic device which energizes (aligns) H atoms in tissue, and produces images from subsequent energy released by the process; non-ionizing method of inspection for soft tissue.
light microscopy Microscope examination with magnification in the 1,000 x.
Ultrasound Sound waves striking tissue of different densities produce characteristic echoes, which can be recorded as image.
PET scan Visualizes metabolically active cells using radioactive glucose, thus providing information regarding tissue function; using computer-generated image provides a picture of living, working cell.
Created by: nely.nieto