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Respiratory System

Chapter 17 Anatomy & Physiology

Consists of structures located outside the thoracic cavity Upper Respiratory Track
consists of structure located inside the thoracic cavity Lower Respiratory Track
consists of the nose nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx Upper Respiratory Track
the small hairs that are inside the nostrils Cilia
separates the nasal cavity from the mouth Palate
boney part of the palate Hard palate
Soft tissue continuation of hard plate Soft palate
separates oropharynx and nasopharynx Soft palate
elevated during swallowing to prevent bolus from entering nasopharynx Soft palate
"punching bag" on the soft palate Uvula
bone and soft tissue that Separates the cavity into two halves. nasal septum
3 curly bones on each lateral wall Conchae
these bones create narrow passages, ensuring that most air contacts the mucous membrane on the way through. Conchae
dust sticks to the mucosa from these bones, which is then swallowed Conchae
the muscular tube just behind the nasal and oral cavities. Pharynx
extends from the posterior nares to the soft palate. Nasopharynx
it contains openings for the right and left auditory tubes Nasopharynx
The space between the soft palate and the base of the tongue Oropharynx
it contains the palatine tonsils as well as the lingual tonsils Oropharynx
passes dorsal to the larynx and connects to the esophagus Laryngopharynx
Turbulence warms and humidifies air and traps particles in mucus Condition air
Chemoreceptors from CN 1 that come through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid b. for smell olfactory receptors
Air filled cavities in the frontal, maxillae, ethmiod and sphenoid bones Paranasal sinuses
passages of air and food Oropharynx
contains Stratified squamous epithelium Oropharynx
Contains the pharyngeal tonsils Nasopharynx
lies between the root of the tongue and the upper end of the trachea Larynx
often is called the voice box Larynx
it prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea Larynx
it acts as an air passageway between the pharynx and trachea Larynx
it produces sound Larynx
Closes over the top the larynx during swallowing to direct food and liquids in the esophagus Epiglottis
also known as the Adams apple Thyroid Cartilage
the opening between the vocal cords Glottis
lies right in front of the esophagus Trachea
the ridged tube that is about 4-5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter Trachea
know as the wind pipe Trachea
extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi at a structure called the _________. Carina
like the trachea, it is supported by a "c" shaped rings of cartilage Primary Bronchi
the primary bronchi branches into the Secondary Bronchi
the secondary bronchi branches into tertiary bronchi
very small airways that branch from the tertiary bronchi Bronchioles
Alveolar ducts throughout the lungs terminate in clusters of alveoli are called Alveolar Sacs
the primary structures for gas exchange Alveolar Sacs
the exchange of air occurs though what's called the ___________ Respiratory membrane
the substance that helps reduce surface tension Surfactant
Millions o fair sacs where bronchioles terminate and where gas exchange occurs Alveoli
Elastic connective tissues connects ______ Alveoli
the junction between the capillary and the alveolus Respiratory membrane
they extend from just above the clavicles to the diaphragm and lie against the anterior and posterior ribs Lungs
the medial portion of each of these is concave to allow room for the heart and great vessels Lungs
the pulmonary blood vessels enter each lung through an opening in the lung's medial surface called Hilum
in a space called the plural cavity Lungs
the base of each lung rest on the Diaphragm
the top, or _____, of each lung extends about 1/2 (1.3 cm) above the first rib Apex
the right lung has how many lobes Three
the left lung has how many lobes two
the fissure in the left lung that separates the superior and inferior lobes Oblique
the fissure in the right lung that separates the superior and middle lobes Horizontal
The fissure in the right lung that separates the middle and inferior lobes Oblique
A serous membrane that covers the surface of the lungs, extending into the fissures Visceral Pleura
lines the entire thoracic cavity Parietal Pleura
the space between the visceral and parietal Pleurae Pleural Cavity
the pleural cavity is only a _______ space Potential
It lubricates the pleural surfaces, allowing the two surface to glide painlessly against each other as the lungs expand and contracts Pleural fluid
It Creates a pressure gradient that assists in lung inflation Pleural fluid
the repetitive process of inhaling Inspiration
the repetitive process of exhaling Expiration
it occurs from one inspiration and one expiration Respiratory Cycle
in inspiration: muscles pull the ribs upward, widening the thoracic cavity External intercostal
In inspiration: it Helps elevate the ribs Internal Intercostal
In inspiration: it contracts, flattens and drops, pressing the abdominal organs downward and enlarging the thoracic cavity Diaphragm
IN expiration: muscles that pull the ribs downward as the external intercostals relax Internal Intercostal
IN Expiration: it relaxes, bulging upward and pressing against the base of the lungs, reducing the size of the thoracic cavity Diaphragm
muscles of the neck and chest contact to help elevate the chest Deep Inspiration
such as when singing or shouting-- the rectus abdominis and external abdominals obliques contract to pull down ribs and sternum, further reducing chest size and expelling air more rapidly Forced Expiration
the medulla contains how many interconnected centers that control breathing Two
the primary respiratory center Inspiratory Center
sends impulses to the intercostal muscles and to the diaphragm Inspiratory Center
stimulates the inspiratory center to increase the length and depth of inspiration Apneustic center
inhabits both the apneustic center and the inspiratory center Pneumotaxic Center
contributes to a normal breathing rhythm and prevents overinflation of the lungs Pneumotaxic Center
when more forceful exhalations are needed, such as in exercise, this sends impulses to the abdominal and other accessory muscles Expiratory Center
the pressure between the visceral and parietal pleurae, which assists with lung expansion Intrapleural pressure
the pressure within the bronchi and alveoli Intrapulmonic pressure
the movement of air to and from alveoli Ventilation
also known as inspiration Inhalation
also known as expiration Exhalation
breathing in Inhalation
Breathing out Exhalation
rhythmicity controlled from the medulla and pons (vital centers) Nervous Regulation
Impulse carried by phrenic and intercostal nerves Nervous Regulation
the elasticity in the lungs pulmonary compliance
the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during quiet breathing Tidal volume
the amount of air inhaled using maximum effort after a normal inspiration Inspiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration by using maximum effort Expiratory reserve volume
this air ensures that the gas exchange continues even between breaths Residual Volume
the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled with the deepest possible breath Vital Capacity
the maximum amount of air that the lungs can contain Total lung capacity
Volume breathed in one minute Minute Respiratory Volume
Tidal volume x bpm Minute Respiratory Volume
the amount of air that actually reaches the alveoli Alveolar Ventilation
Air NOT in the alveoli with inhalation Anatomical dead space
occurs normally as air makes its way to the alveoli Anatomical dead space
includes all air in conducting airways plus the air in any alveoli that are poorly perfused and, therefore, less efficient in gas exchange Physiological dead space
Volume in non-functioning alveoli Physiological dead space
the contribution of single gas in a mixture of gases toward the total pressure of the gas mixture Partial pressure
The process in which our bodies make energy Cellur/internal Respiration
in the lungs, the oxygen forms a weak bond with the iron portion of hemoglobin, creating Oxyhemoglobin
travels through the circulatory system to the tissue cells Oxyhemoglobin
C02 is also carried on hemoglobin when the 02 leaves (about 20%) this forms Carbaminohemoglobin
the opening between the vocal cords Glottis
opening on the lung's medial surface through which primary bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels pass Hilum
one smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes Bronchioles
Air sac in the lungs Alveolus
the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs that serve as passageways for air Bronchi
Created by: Leci81
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