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Organ Systems

primary functions of organ systems

Cutaneous Membrane Integ sys.- Epidermis & Dermis
Epidermis Integ sys.- Covers surface; protects deeper tissues
Dermis Integ sys.-Nourishes epidermis; provides strength; contains glands
Hair Follicles Integ sys.-Produce hair; innervation provides sensation
Hairs Integ sys.-Prove some protection for head
Sebaceous Glands Integ sys.-Secrete lipid coating that lubricates hair shaft and epidermis
Sweat Glands Integ sys.-Produce perspiration for evaporative cooling
Nails Integ sys.- Protect and stiffen distal tips of digits
Sensory receptors Integ sys.- Provide sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, pain
Subcutaneous layer Integ sys.- Stores lipids; attaches skin to deeper structures
Bones, Cartilages, and Joints Skeletal system- Support, protect soft tissues; bones store minerals
Axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, sternum, supporting cartilages and ligaments) Skeletal system- Protects brain, spinal cord, sense organs, and soft tissues of thoracic cavity, supports the body weight over the lower limbs
Appendicular skeleton (limbs and supporting bones and ligaments) Skeletal system- Provides internal support and positioning of the limbs; supports and moves axial skeleton
Bone Marrow Skeletal system- Primary site of blood cell production (red marrow); storage of energy reserves in fat cells (yellow marrow)
Skeletal Muscles Muscular system- Provide skeletal movement; control entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts and exits of digestive and urinary tracts; produce heat; support skeleton; protect soft tissues
Axial muscles Muscular system- Support and position axial skeleton
Appendicular muscles Muscular system- Support, move, and brace limbs
Tendons, Aponeuroses Muscular system- Harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks
Central Nervous System (CNS) Nervous system- Acts as control center for nervous system: processes information; provides short-term control over activities of other systems
Brain Nervous system- Performs complex integrative functions; controls both voluntary and autonomic activities
Spinal Cord Nervous system- Relays info to and from brain; performs less-complex integrative functions; directs many simple involuntary activities
Special senses Nervous system- Provide sensory input to the brain relating to sight, hearing, smell, taste, and equilibrium
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nervous system- Links CNS w/ other systems and with sense organs
Pineal Gland Endocrine system- May control timing of reproduction and set day-night rhythms
Pituitary Gland Endocrine system- Controls other endocrine glands; regulates growth and fluid balance
Thyroid Gland Endocrine system- Controls tissue metabolic rate; regulates calcium levels
Parathyroid Gland Endocrine system- Regulate calcium levels (w/ thyroid)
Thymus Endocrine system- Controls maturation of lymphocytes
Adrenal Glands Endocrine system- Adjust water balance, tissue metabolism, cardiovascular and respiratory activity
Kidneys Endocrine system- Control red blood cell production and elevate blood pressure
Pancreas Endocrine system- Regulates blood glucose levels
Gonads Endocrine system- Testes & Ovaries
Testes Endocrine system- Support male sexual characteristics and reproductive functions
Ovaries Endocrine system- Support female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions
Heart Cardiovascular system- Propels blood; maintains blood pressure
Blood Vessels Cardio sys.- Distribute blood around the body
Arteries Cardio sys. - Carry blood from heart to capillaries
Capillaries Cardio sys.- Permit diffusion b/w blood and interstitial fluids
Veins Cardio sys.- Return blood from capillaries to the heart
Blood Cardio sys.- Transports O2, CO2, and blood cells; delivers nutrients and hormones; removes waste products; assists in temperature regulation and defense against disease
Lymphatic Vessels Lymphatic Sys.- Carry lymph (water and proteins) and lymphocytes from peripheral tissues to veins of the cardio sys.
Lymph Nodes Lymphatic Sys.- Monitor the composition of lymph; engulf pahtogens; stimulate immune response
Spleen Lymphatic Sys.- Monitors circulating blood; engulfs pathogens and recycles red blood cells; stimulates immune response
Thymus Lymphatic Sys.- Controls development and maintenance of one class of lymphocytes (T cells)
Nasal Cavities, Paranasal Sinuses Respiratory sys.- Filter, warm, humidify air; detect smells
Pharynx Respiratory sys.- Conducts air to larnyx; a chamber shared with the digestive tract
Larnyx Respiratory sys.- Protects opening to trachea and contains vocal cords
Trachea Respiratory sys.- Filters air; traps particles in mucus; cartilages keep airway open
Bronchi Respiratory sys.- (same as trachea) through volume changes
Lungs Respiratory sys.- Responsible for air movement during movement of ribs and diaphragm; incude airways and alveoli
Alveoli Respiratory sys.- Acts as sites of gas exchange between air and blood
Mouth Digestive sys.- Receptacle for food; works w/ associated structures (teeth, tongue) to break up food and pass food and liquids to pharnyx
Salivary glands Digestive sys.- Provide buffers and lubrication; produce enzymes that begin digestion
Pharynx Digestive sys.- Conducts solid food and liquids to esophagus; chamber shared with respiratory tract
Esophagus Digestive sys.- Delivers food to stomach
Stomach Digestive sys.- Secretes acids and enzymes
Small Intestine Digestive sys.- Secretes digestive enzymes, buffers, and hormones; absorbs nutrients
Liver Digestive sys.- Secretes bile; regulates nutrient composition of blood
Gallbladder Digestive sys.- Stores and concentrates bile for release into small intestine
Pancreas Digestive sys.- Secretes digestive enzymes and buffers; contains endorine cells
Large Intestine Digestive sys.- Removes water from fecal material; stores wastes
Created by: afogel
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