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Main Chp. 1

Chp. 1

Physiology study of function
developmental anatomy embryology (changes from conception to physical maturity)
gross anatomy large structures (cadaver/ thorax and abdomen)
microscopic anatomy (can't be seen without microscope) histology- study of tissues
regional anatomy study of specific region (i.e. upper limb)
surface anatomy study of general form, morphology. under human surface (bones, muscles, etc)
systemic anatomy study of major organ systems (skeletal..)
organism responsiveness, growth diff., reproduction, movement, metabolism & excretion
catabolism breakdown of complex chemicals
anabolism synthesis of simple to complex
metabolism all chemical operations under way in the body
differentiation multicellular organisms, the individual cells become specialized to perform particular functions
Integumentary System Protection from environmental hazards; temperature control
Skeletal System Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation
Muscular system Locomotion, support, heat production
Nervous system Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
Endocrine system Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
Cardiovascular system Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases
inferior below, at lower level, (toward the feet)
medial toward mid-line (longitudal axis of body)
lateral away from mid-line (longitudal axis)
proximal toward an attached base
distal away from attached base (center of body)
superficial at, near, or close to body surface
deep toward the interior of the body; farther away from the surface
transverse, horizontal, cross-sectional (perpedincular to long axis) seperates superior and inferior portions of the body; sections typically pass through head and trunk regions
sagittal (parallel to long axis) seperates the right and left portions
midsagittal the plane passes through the midline, dividing the body in half and seperating right and left sides
parasagittal (parallel to long axis) misses the midline, seperating left and right sides unequally
frontal/coronal (parallel to long axis) seperates the anterior and posterior portions of the body; usually coronal refers to passing through skull
cephalon area of head
cervicis area of neck
thoracis/thorax chest
Brachium the segment of the upper limb closest to the trunk; the arm
antebrachium the forearm
carpus the wrist
manus the hand
abdomen the abdomen
pelvis the pelvis (in general)
pubis the anterior pelvis
inguen the groin (crease between thigh and trunk)
lumbus the lower back
gluteus the buttock
femur the thigh
patella the kneecap
crus the leg, from knee to ankle
sura the calf
tarsus the ankle
pes the foot
planta plantar region of foot
olecranon back of elbow
dorsum back/ dorsal
shoulder acromial
facies face
cranium skull
frons forehead
oculus eye
auris ear
bucca cheek
nasus nose
mamma breast (mammary)
umbilicus navel
femur thigh
hallux great toe
digits(phalanges) toes or fingers
pollex thumb
palma palm
antecubitis front of elbow
axilla armpit
mentis chin
oris mouth
trunk thoracis, mamma, abdomen, umbilicus, pelvis
upper limb axilla, brachium, antebrachium, antecubitis, carpus, palma, pollx, digits, manus, shoulder
lower limb glutteus, popliteus, sura, calcaneu, planta, crus, tarsus, digits, pes, hallux, patella, femur, pubis, gluteus
right upper quadrant liver, gall bladder, large intestine
left upper quadrant stomach, spleen
right lower quadrant small intestine, vermiform appendix
left lower quadrant urinary bladder
body cavities internal chambers where most organs are suspended Protects delicate organs from accidental shocks & cushions them from thumps/bumps from excercise & exertion.
cranial cavity fluid-filled space whose limits are established by the cranium the bones of the skull that surround the brain
spinal cavity surrounds the spinal cord; is formed by the processes of spinal vertebrae.
ventral body cavity contains organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. b/c project party into ventral body cavity, can significantly change size & shape of organs w/o distorting surrounding tissues or other activities.
thoracic cavity superior body cavity seperated from ventral cavity by the diaphragm.surrounded by chest wall includes lungs and heart, associated organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and lymphatic systems, as well as the thymus & inferior portions of the esophagus
pleural cavities of thoracic thoracic cavity is subdivided by mediastinum into the left and right pleural cavities; each contain a lung
mediastinum seperates the left and right pleural cavities. its connective tissues surrounds and supports the esophagus, trachea, and thymus and major blood vessels at heart.
pericardial cavity a small chamber that surrounds the heart- contained in the mediastinum
pericardium serous membrane covering the heart
abdominopelvic cavity is the inferior cavity seperated by the diaphragm in the ventral body cavity. it is divided into a superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity. contains the peritoneal cavity.
peritoneal cavity internal chamber lined by serous membrane known as the peritoneum
abdominal cavity contains the liver, stomach, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, and small intestine, and most of large intestine. project partially into the peritoneal cavity (like heart and lungs project into pericardial and pleural cavities)
pelvic cavity enclosed by bones of pelvis, contains last segments of large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs.
diaphragm flat muscular sheet, seperates the ventral body cavity into superior (thoracic cavity), enclosed by chest wall, and inferior (abdominopelvic cavity) enclosed by abdominal wall and pelvis.
viscera The internal organs that project into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Created by: afogel