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Nissing AP Ch3

A&P Ch3 Cellular Level of Organization (CELL)

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The smallest living units in the human body are called... Cells
Term meaning the study of cellular structure and function cytology
Term integrating cytology, biology, chemistry, and physics Cell biology
What are the two general classes of human body cells? Sex/germ/reproductive cells and somatic/body cells
What are the male and female sex cells called? Sperm and oocyte
What is the outer boundary of a human cell called? Plasma membrane or cell membrane
Give the 4 general functions of the cell membrane Physical isolation, regulation or exchange with environment, sensitivity to environment, structural support
Making up only 40% of the weight of a plasma membrane, these form most of its surface lipids, specifically phospholipid bilayer
What is the watery medium called that surrounds cells? Extracellular fluid or interstitial fluid
Two of these are at right angles inside the centrosome. They are essential to chromosome movement during cell division Centrioles
this is made of proteins organized in microfilaments or microtubles to provide strength, support, and movement of structures and materials Cytoskeleton
This is a lipid bilayer containing phospholipids, steroids, proteins and carbs. Plasma membrane
These are membrane extensions containing microfilaments that increase the surface area of the cell, facilitating absorption Microvilli
Present on some cells, these are long extensions containing microtuble doublets that facilitate movement of materials over cell Cilia
These are hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends. Proteasomes
Term meaning breakdown and recycling of damaged or abnormal proteins Proteolytic, proteolysis
These are RNA and proteins that float free in cytoplasm or bind to rough ER. They synthesize protein. Ribosomes
These vesicles contain digestive enzymes and they remove damaged organelles or pathogens Lysosomes (Lysis = break down)
This is a stack of flattened cisternae containing chambers for storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes Golgi apparatus
This is a network of membranous channels extending through cytoplasm to synthesize secretory products, store and transport within the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
This is the powerhouse of the cell, producing ATP within its double cristae of metabolic enzymes Mitochondria
This controls metabolism, storage, and processing of genetic information, and it controls protein synthesis Nucleus
Term meaning increase in size Growth
Term means production of more organisms organized like the original organism, refers to an increase in numbers Reproduction
The ability to change internal and/or external properties in reaction to changing conditions, possibly move toward or away from stimulus Responsiveness
Ability to move toward or away from environmental stimuli Taxis
Ability of organisms to take nutrients from outside of themselves and use them in a series of controlled chemical reactions to provide energy Metabolism
Name of chemical bonds in which metabolic energy is stored Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP)
Membrane extensions containing microfilaments that increase surface area of a cell to facilitate absorption microvilli
9 microtubule triplets in a 9+0 array essential for movement of chromosomes in cell division and organization of mocrotubules in cytoskeleton 2 centrioles in a centrosome
Proteins organized in fine filiments or slender tubes for strength, support, and movement of cellular structures and materials Cytoskeleton
What is the plasma membrane made up of? lipid bilayer continaining phospholipids, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates
Liquid component to interior of cells that distributes materials by diffusion cytosol
extensions containing microtubule doubles in 9+2 array that help move material over a cell's surface Cilia
Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends that break down and recycle damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins Proteasomes
RNA + proteins that function in protein synthesis Ribosomes
Membranous vesicles containing degradative enzyme that catabolize organic compounds and neutralize toxic compounds in the process Peroxisomes (peroxide neutralizers)
Membrane bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes to remove damaged organelles or pathogens Lysosomes
Membrane bound vesicle that stores, alters, and packages secretory products and lysosomal enzymes Golgi apparatus
Organelle made up of cisternae Golgi apparatus (cisternae is the stacks of flattened membranous chambers)
Organelle made up of cristae Mitochondria (cristae are the inner membrane folds)
Organelle responsible for 95% of ATP production Mitochondria
Network of membranous channels that modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins Rough ER
Network of membranous channels that synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates Smooth ER
Site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits Nucleolus
Organelle in control of metabolism nucleus
Two double membraned organelles Nucleus and Mitochondria
Proteins that are part of the membrane structure that cannot be removed without damaging or destroying the membrane, usually transmembranous Integral proteins
Proteins that are bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and are easily separated from it Peripheral proteins
These membrane proteins attach the plasma membrane to other structures and stabilize its position to cytoskeleton or another cell Anchoring proteins
These membrane proteins mark a cell as either normal or abnormal for the immune system recognition proteins or identifiers
These membrane proteins may be integral or peripheral, and they catalyze reactions in the intra- or extra- cellular fluid Enzymes
This extracellular particle will bind to an appropriate receptor, which may trigger changes in the cell activity Ligands
These peripheral membrane proteins are sensitive to the presence of special extracellular molecules called ligands Receptor proteins
These membrane proteins bind solutes and transport them across the plasma membrane, possibly with ATP Carrier proteins
These membrane proteins are integral and contain a central pore for passage across the plasma membrane Chanel proteins
Some substances that require a channel protein ions, water and small solutes, water soluble materials (polar)
Functions of the glycocalyx Lubrication, anchoring and locomotion, specificity in binding, recognition as self
Cytoplasm contains these two things... Cytosol (intracellular fluid) and organelles
Masses of insoluble materials in the cytosol inclusions
Internal protein framework giving cytoplasm strength and flexibility cytoskeleton
Which type of cells has thick filaments? muscle cells
Name a couple of things attached to microfilaments and microtubules of cytoskeleton Ribosomes and RNA responsible for protein synthesis. Many intracellular enzymes especially those involved with metabolism and energy production.
Typical microfilaments are composed of... the protein ACTIN
Where are microfilaments in the cell the periphery, not near the nucleus
What is the name of the microfilament layer present in cells that form a layer or lining? terminal web
Actin can interact with this protein to produce movement and change the shape of a cell myosin
Name a couple functions of microtubules Strength/rigidity, monorail system, form spindle apparatus, form centrioles and cilia
Small finger shaped projections of the plasma membrane on surface of some cells Microvilli
Purpose of microvilli Greatly increase surface area of cell exposed to extracellular environment
Describe the organization of centrioles Nine triplets connected by their sides with no central microtubules, called a 9+0 array
Mature red blood cells, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and typical neurons cannot divide. Why? They have no centrioles
Fairly long slender extensions of the plasma membrane found on cells lining respiratory and reproductive tracts cilia
Describe the organization of microtubules in the cilia Nine pairs of microtubules surround a central pair, called a 9+2 array
In the basal body of cilia, what is the organization of microtubules? Nine triplets connected by their sides with no central microtubules, called a 9+0 array
Name one place where ciliated cells create movement In the trachea moving mucus, in the uterine tubes moving oocytes, in the testes moving sperm
Proteins are produced within cells using info from the DNA. The organelles responsible for protein synthesis are called... ribosomes
Ribosomal units are made up of... 60% rRNA and 40% protein
Before protein synthesis can begin, a small and large ribosomal subunit must join together with... a strand of mRNA
What do free ribosomes do with the protein they produce? They scatter it through the cytosol as they move through the cytoplasm
What do fixed ribosomes do with the protein they synthesize? It enters the ER where it is modified and packaged for secretion
Organelles that remove proteins from cytoplasm using an assortment of proteases Proteasomes
These "tag" a protein destined for recycling Cytoplasmic enzymes, using ubiquitin
Which organelle is connected to the nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum
What is synthesized in the smooth ER? Lipids: Phospholipids and cholesteral for use in cellular membranes. Steroid hormones like androgens and estrogens. Glycerides. Glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells
In some cells, like muscle and neural cells, the SER adjusts the composition of the cytosol by... absorbing and storing ions such as Ca2+
This part of the ER can absorb drugs or toxins and neutralize them with enzymes within it Smooth
The ER forms hollow tubes, flattened sheets, and chambers called... cisternae
membrane bound organelle that breaks down molecules and organelles with powerful, but dangerous, enzymes Lysosomes
Where are lysosomes produced? the Golgi apparatus
The process of endocytosis creates a vesicle called an... endosome
Inactive cells are destroyed by lysosomes disintegrating, releasing enzymes which become activated in cytosol. This process is called... autolysis
Conditions affecting children who lack lysosomal enzymes and waste products build up, eventually killing the victim Lysosomal storage disease
These organelles are produced by growth and division of others that already exist, and contain enzymes produced at ribosomes that are carried to them by carrier proteins Peroxisomes
What do peroxisomes break down? Fatty acids and other organic compounds, and the H2O2 they produce
What enzyme in peroxisomes breaks down hydrogen peroxide? Catalase turns it into oxygen and water
Name for the continuous movement and change of the nuclear envelope, ER, vesicles, golgi, and plasma membrane membrane flow
These membranous folds increase the surface area exposed to the fluid contents, or matrix, of mitochondria. Cristae
The first step in ATP production occurs in the cytoplasm, and is a process called glycolysis
Glycolysis breaks glucose down into two molecules of... pyruvate
Inside the mitochondrial matrix, a CO2 molecule is removed from pyruvate, which then enters this cycle Citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle
What are the byproducts of Krebs cycle? carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The carbon and oxygen diffuse out of the cell in the form of Carbon Dioxide, the hydrogen ultimately bonds to Oxygen
Why is the prodeuction of ATP considered aerobic metabolism, or cellular respiration? Because oxygen is required
How is the 5% of energy NOT created by mitochondria produced? Enzymatic reactions in the cytoplasm
Largest and most conspicuous structure in the cell Nucleus
The two layers of the nuclear membrane are separated by a narrow... perinuclear space
Transient nuclear organelles that synthesize ribosomal RNA Nucleoli
What are nucleoli composed of? RNA, enzymes, and histones
What types of cells would you find the most nucleoli? Those that manufacture large amounts of proteins, such as the liver, nerve, and muscle cells.
What determines the information available to the cell at any moment? Interaction between the DNA and the histones
DNA strands wound loosely around a histone form a tangle of filaments called... Chromatin
DNA strands coiled tightly around histones form distinct structures called... Chromosomes
Name the chemical language the cell uses to build proteins and inherited information genetic code
The genetic code has this title because a sequence of three nitrogenous bases specifies the identity of a single amino acid Triplet code
The functional unit of heredity Gene
Factors controlling gene activation Gene must uncoil, histones must be removed
Name the gene that has the signal "read me", "don't read me" or "start" Promoter
Each gene ends with what signal? STOP codon
What starts gene activation? Complementary strands separate and histone is removed
The first start of transcription (RNA synthesis) involves the promoter gene binding with this enzyme RNA polymerase
What do we call a three-base mRNA sequence that contain nitrogenous bases complementary to the template strand Codon
Each gene has some nonfunctional triplets that need to be removed from the pre-mRNA. Name the parts that are removed and the parts kept. Remove introns, keep exons and splice them together
The formation of a linear chain of amino acids using the information provided by an mRNA strand translation
what is the function of transfer RNA (tRNA) Bind to and deliver a specific type of amino acid
What is the numerical relationship between nitrogenous bases and amino acids? One amino acid has 3 nitrogenous bases, or 3 nucleotides
Gene activation or diactivation is triggered by changes in the... surrounding cytoplasm
property of plasma to determine what can pass permeability
Levels of permeability Freely, selectively, or impermeable
Net movement from higher to lower concentration diffusion
Difference between concentrations or potential energy Gradient
Some factors that influence (increase) diffusion rates Distance to travel (shorter), size of molecule (smaller), temperature (higher), concentration gradient (larger), electrical forces (opposite)
Another name for passive channels leak channels
term for diffusion of water osmosis
Three requirements of osmosis 1) membrane selectively permeable to solutes 2) membrane freely permeable to water 3) from lower to higher solute concentration
Indication of the force with which pure water moves into a solution as a result of its solute concentration osmotic pressure
Opposing pressure that can prevent osmotic flow of water into a solution or measure osmotic pressure hydrostatic pressure
Which eliminates solute concentration differences more readily, osmosis or solute diffusion? Osmosis
Term meaning total solute concentration in an aqueous solution Osmolarity or osmotic concentration
Description of how solutes affect a cell tonicity
Salt concentration of isotonic solution 0.9% (Normal Saline)
red blood cell bursting hemolysis
Purpose of dextran Draw fluid into vessels from extracellular fluid to increase blood volume
Always an active process, this method of transport involves movement of materials within small membranous sacs vesicular transport, or bulk transport, or endocytosis and exocytosis
Carrier mediated transport forms all have these characteristics: Specificity, saturation limits, regulation (presence of cofactors) **Notice the similarity to enzyme characteristics
Transport by carrier of two substances simultaneously in the same direction cotransport
Transport by carrier of two substances simultaneously in the opposite direction Countertransport or antiport
Inadequate production of insulin diabetes mellitus
What provides energy for active transport? ATP
All cells contain these carrier proteins which transport cations and sometimes anions across their membranes ion pumps or exchange pumps
A fancy ion pump that fixes the NA coming in and the K going out through diffusion across leak channels Sodium Potassium Exchange
I stopped CH3 notes on p 96. This included mitosis, interphase, and cytokinesis. I still hit the related clinical terms on p 103
irreversible change in size and shape of tissue cells anaplasia
reversible change in normal shape, size, and organization of tissue cells dysplasia (dys=wrong plasia=growth)
increase in number of normal cells enlarging the tissue hyperplasia (hyper=over plasia=growth)
increase in size of cells that enlarges tissue or organ hypertrophy (hyper=over trophy=nourishment)
lipid sac enclosing water, often formed artificially for drugs liposome
Created by: jenissing
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