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Chapter 1

Introduction to Structure and Function of the Body

What is Biology? The study of all forms of life.
What is Anatomy? Where things are located in the body. (color,size,thickness)
What is Physiology? How everything works. (muscles,bones,body parts)
What are the structural levels of organization? 1.chemical-not a living level 2.cellular-all cells in the body,living matter,everything in the body has cells. 3.tissues-contain cells,membranes,muscles,blood. 4.organs-heart,stomach,etc. 5.system-most complex unit of the body,performs specific functions.
What are the anatomical positions? Supine is face up. Prone is face down.
What is the anatomical direction? Superior is towards the top. Inferior is towards the bottom.
What is anterior? Front or ventral
What is posterior? Back or dorsal
What is medial? Toward the middle of the body.
What is lateral? Toward the side of the body.
What is cranial? Top of the body.
What is caudal? Bottom of the body.
What is proximal? Closer to the point of attachment.
What is distal? Farther point of attachment.
What is superficial? Closer to the surface.
What is deep? Farther away from the body surface.
What are the two major body cavities? Ventral and dorsal.
What parts are included in the upper part of the ventral (or front) cavity? Thoracic or chest. Mediastinum. Right and left pleural cavities.
What is the lower part of the ventral cavity? Abdominal and pelvic cavity or abdominopelvic cavity.
What is the muscular sheet that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? The diaphragm which is dome shaped and is the most important muscle for breathing.
What are the dorsal cavities? The cranial and spinal cavities.
What are the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity? 1.right superior(upper) 2.right inferior(lower)3.left superior(upper)4.left inferior(lower)
What is the center mid-line of the body? Axial.
What are the attachments or appendages? Appendicular.
What is it called when the body maintains balance? Homeostasis.
What is metabolism? The activity of cells in the body.
What is building up or to heal and repair body tissue called? What provide this function? Anabolism. Protein.
What is the process of breaking down food for energy? Catabolism.
What is the abdominal region? The anterior torso below the diaphragm.
What is the antecubital region? The depressed area just in front of the elbow.
What is the axillary region? The armpit.
What is the brachial region? The arm.
What is the carpal region? The wrist.
What is the cephalic region? The head.
What is the cervical region? The neck.
What is the cranial region? The skull.
What is the digital region? The fingers or toes.
What is the dorsal region? The back.
What is the frontal region? The forehead.
What is the nasal region? The nose.
What is the oral region? The mouth.
What is the orbital or opthalmic region? The eyes.
What is the femoral region? The thigh.
What is the gluteal region? The buttock.
What is the inguinal region? The groin.
What is the lumbar region? The lower back (between ribs and pelvis)
What is the mammary region? The breast.
What is the occipital region? The back of the lower skull.
What is the pedal region? The foot.
What is the pelvic region? The lower portion of the torso.
What is the perineal region? The area between the anus and gentials.
What is the plantar region? The sole of the foot.
What is the popliteal region? The area behind the knee.
What is the thoracic region? The chest.
What is the umbillical region? The area around the navel. (umbillicus)
Created by: sbrandom