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Ch 13 Cardiovascular

Arteries carry oxygenated blood.
Oxygen is abbreviated O2.
Arterioles refer to small arteries
Veins carry deoxygenated blood
De-oxygenated blood contains carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is abbreviated CO2.
Venules refer to small veins.
Capillaries refer to the smallest of the arteries and veins.
Vasodilation refers to increased diameter of arteries
Vasoconstriction refers to decreased diameter of arteries.
Vasodilation will cause hypotension.
Vasoconstriction will cause hypertension
The body cavity where the heart is housed is called the thoracic cavity
The region directly between the sternum and vertebrae is called the mediastinum
The pericardium refers to the membranous sac around the heart
The epicardium refers to the outer layer of the heart
The myocardium refers to the muscle layer of the heart.
The endocardium refers to the inner layer of the heart.
The chambers of the heart are separated by walls called septa/septum
Deoxygenated blood (CO2) is returned to the heart via the venae cavae (superior and inferior).
The superior and inferior venae cavae are the largest veins in the body.
The venae cavae deliver the deoxygenated blood (CO2) to the right atrium
The right atrium is the superior right chamber of the heart
The deoxygenated blood (CO2) moves through the tricuspid valve.
The tricuspid valve allows the deoxygenated blood (CO2) to enter the right ventricle
The right ventricle is the inferior right chamber of the heart
The purpose of the tricuspid valve is to prevent the blood from regurgitating.
The sound caused by valvular regurgitation is called a murmur (bruit).
The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated blood (CO2) through the pulmonary trunk
The valve at the entrance of the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve.
The deoxygenated blood (CO2) then enters the right and left pulmonary arteries
The pulmonary arteries carry the deoxygenated blood (CO2) to the lungs
The lungs are where respiration takes place.
Respiration is the exchange of gases.
The gases that are exchanged are O2 and CO2
The oxygenated blood (O2) returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins.
The pulmonary veins deliver the oxygenated blood (O2) to the left atrium
The left atrium is the superior left chamber of the heart
The oxygenated blood (O2) then moves through the bicuspid valve
The bicuspid valve is AKA mitral valve
The bicuspid (mitral) valve allows the oxygenated blood (O2) to enter the left ventricle
The left ventricle is the inferior left chamber of the heart
The purpose of the bicuspid (mitral) valve is to prevent the blood from regurgitating
The sound caused by valve regurgitation is called a murmur (bruit).
The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood (O2) through the aortic semilunar valve
The aortic semilunar valve allows the oxygenated blood (O2) to enter the: 1. Ascending aorta. 2. Aortic arch. 3. Descending thoracic aorta. 4. Abdominal aorta.
The aorta branches off into arteries, arterioles, and capillaries, that will distribute the oxygen (O2) to the tissues of the body.
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the bicuspid (Mitral) and tricuspid valves preventing prolapse are called chordae tendineae
The carotid arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the brain.
The coronary arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
The subclavian arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the arms and superior thorax
The mesenteric arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the intestines.
The phrenic arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the diaphragm.
The diaphragm is the main muscle of ventilation
The abdominal aorta bifurcates into the iliac arteries
The iliac arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the pelvis and thighs
The femoral arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the legs.
Other capillaries, venules, and veins will return the deoxygenated blood (CO2) to the venae cavae and the circuit is complete.
The jugulars drain deoxygenated blood from the head
The saphenous veins drain deoxygenated blood from the legs.
The saphenous veins are commonly used for coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG).
Another vessel used for CABG is the mammary artery
heart-lung machine a machine that respirates the blood when the heart is stopped for surgical procedures
C-reactive protein (CRP) inflammatory indicator and powerful risk factor for heart disease
CPK (CK) +LDH (LD) enzymes (chemicals) in the blood that indicate muscle damage.
CPK-MB (“isoenzymes” or “isos”) very specific enzymes in the blood that indicate cardiac damage.
The azygos vein drains deoxygenated blood from the thorax.
The median cubital (antecubital) veins are commonly used to perform phlebotomy (venipuncture).
Blood is necessary to: 1. Transport nutrients and water from the digestive tract to all cells of the body
These nutrients include: a. Vitamins and minerals which are used for chemical processes and reactions
Carbohydrates which are used for energy.
Proteins which are used for growth and repair
Fats are used for vitamin absorption and cellular wall creation.
Transport waste products from the body’s cells to the lungs, sweat glands, and kidneys for excretion
Transport hormones from endocrine glands to target cells and organs in the body
Transport enzymes to body cells in order to regulate chemical processes and reactions
Dissipates excess body heat through dilated blood vessels in the skin
Transports leukocytes and antibodies to defend the body against pathogens
Helps regulate body pH by transporting buffers and amino acids
Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45.
Blood pH below 7.35 is considered acidotic (acidosis).
Blood pH above 7.45 is considered alkalitic (alkaline, alkalosis, or basic).
An average woman has approximately ____ liters of blood. 5
An average man has approximately ____ liters of blood 6
Erythrocytes AKA red blood cells (RBCs).
. Leukocytes AKA white blood cells (WBCs).
Thrombocytes AKA clot cells or platelets.
Erythrocytes are responsible for respiration.
Respiration is the exchange of gases.
The gases that are exchanged are oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Erythrocytes appear as biconcave disks with edges that are thicker than the center of the cell (Cream Savers).
Erythrocytes do not have nuclei so they do not have the ability to divide (replicate).
Erythropoiesis means the formation of erythrocytes
Erythropoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow AKA myeloid tissue
A normal erythrocyte count is 4 - 6 million/mm3
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys.
Erythropoietin is necessary for erythrocyte development
Erythrocytes live for approximately 120 days
Erythrocytes die at a rate of 2,000,000/second.
Hemolysis means the break up or destruction of blood (RBCs).
Bilirubin is dead, broken up erythrocytes
Hyperbilirubinemia means a blood condition of excessive bilirubin
Hyperbilirubinemia causes jaundice or icterus.
Jaundice (icterus) is a yellowish, orange discoloration to the skin or sclerae
Hyperbilirubinemia can be caused by liver, gall bladder, or pancreatic dysfunction
The blood protein found inside RBCs that is necessary for RBCs to carry O2 and CO2 is called hemoglobin.
A normal hemoglobin range is 12 -17 g/dL
The element necessary for healthy hemoglobin is called iron (Fe).
Foods rich in iron (Fe) include red meat and dark green leafy vegetables.
Hematocrit (“crit”) is the measure of the packed cell volume (PCV).
PCV is the percentage of blood attributed to erythrocytes (RBCs).
H+H stands for hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct or “crit”).
MCH stands for mean cell hemoglobin
MCHC stands for mean cell hemoglobin concentration.
Anemia refers to erythrocytopenia and/or a deficiency of hemoglobin
Erythrocytopenia is a deficiency of erythrocytes (RBCs).
Leukocytes are part of your immune response against foreign proteins.
Foreign proteins are called antigens.
A normal leukocyte count is 5000 – 11,000 mm3
Leukocytosis is an elevated leukocyte count (WBC).
Infection can cause a leukocytosis of 20,000 mm3
Leukopoiesis means the formation of leukocytes (WBCs).
Leukopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow.
Monocytes are phagocytes.
Phagocytes are eating cells (PAC-MEN).
Phagocytes consume antigens
Neutrophils are phagocytes.
Basophils release histamine and heparin
Histamine triggers the inflammatory response
Heparin prevents clotting and promotes blood flow
Eosinophils lessen allergic reactions and increase in number in the event of a parasitical worm infestation (helminths
Lymphocytes help produce antibodies
Antibodies are necessary to defeat viral infections
Leukocytopenia means a deficiency of white cells.
Leukemia refers to a blood condition of extreme leukocytosis of immature leukocytes (WBCs).
Thrombocytes (platelets) are needed for proper coagulation.
A normal thrombocyte count is 150,000 - 300,000 mm3.
Thrombocytes (platelets) are produced at a rate of 200,000,000,000/day.
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow
Hemophilia is a genetic coagulopathy caused by a deficiency of a clotting factor.
Thrombus - thrombi are clot(s).
Embolus - emboli are a floating clot(s).
Thrombolysis or thrombolytic means the break up or destruction of clots
Anticoagulant means against coagulation (clotting).
Thrombocytopenia means a deficiency of platelets (clot cells).
Thrombocytosis means an abnormal condition of excessive platelets
A bleeding time is a test to determine a person’s ability to coagulate
INR (international normalization ratio) is a test to determine a person’s ability to coagulate
Coagulation panel (profile) consists of INR, prothrombin (PT), platelet count, and bleeding time
DIC stands for disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
DIC causes the coagulation process to collapse, followed by hypovolemic shock (exsanguination) and death
Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood
Plasma is made up of water, plasma proteins, salts, gases, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes, hormones, vitamins, and minerals
Plasma makes up approximately 55% of the blood volume
The cells and other elements make up 45% of the blood volume
A plasma protein necessary for proper fluid balance is albumin
Two plasma proteins that play a vital role in coagulation are fibrinogen and prothrombin (PT).
Proper prothrombin production requires adequate amounts of vitamin K
Foods rich in vitamin K include green leafy vegetables
Serum is plasma without fibrinogen and prothrombin (PT
Plasmapheresis refers to the separation of the plasma from the blood cells.
FFP stands for fresh frozen plasma
Cryoprecipitates refers to FFP with clotting factors
FFP can be stored indefinitely.
A bone marrow biopsy (Bx) is a test commonly used to determine cancers of the blood
Myelogenic means pertaining to created by the bone marrow.
Hematocytopenia means a deficiency of blood cells
Hematoma refers to a mass of blood.
Dyscrasia refers to any blood abnormality
Morphology means the study of shapes.
Hypercholesterolemia is a blood condition of excessive cholesterol
Hematologist is a specialist in the study of blood.
Hemostasis (hemostatic) means the stoppage or controlling of bleeding
A complete blood count (CBC) is a count of the numbers of 1.Erythrocytes (RBCs). 2. Leukocytes (WBCs). 3. Thrombocytes (platelets)4. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct). 5. ESR or “sed rate” (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).
An elevated ESR indicates inflammation
A differential (“diff”) is an individual count of the five different types of leukocytes
The four blood types are A, B, AB, and O.
Each blood type has a + or - called an Rh factor.
The universal donor is type O -
The universal recipient is type AB +
A negative Rh blood type can be given to a positive Rh blood type
A positive Rh cannot be given to a negative Rh blood type
Blood is transfused in units (U).
Donated blood has a refrigerated shelf life of 42 days.
Type and crossmatch (screen) (T+CM) means determining blood type and compatibility with other blood types
PRBCs stands for packed red blood cells.
A lipid profile (panel) includes: 1. Total cholesterol should be < 200 mg/dL. 2. HDL (high density lipoproteins) (“good cholesterol”) should be > 40 mg/dL. 3. Triglycerides should be < 150mg/dL. 4. LDL (low density lipoproteins) should be < 130 mg/dL.
Created by: 1130905247



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