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1W051O Vol1

Weather Journeyman

Climatological Terms A study that measures the climatic contrast between city and surrounding country, or even on a smaller scale. Microclimatology
Climatological Terms This approach tries to explain the cause of climate by the physical processes influencing it Physical climatology
Climatological Terms An average or collective state of the earth’s atmosphere at any given location or area Climate.
Climatological Terms Attempts to relate characteristics of general circulation to climate Dynamic climatology
Climatological Terms The study of the large-scale climate of a large area or country Macroclimatology
Climatological Terms The scientific study of climate Climatology.
Climatological Terms May or may not be climatically representative of a general region Microclimatology.
Climatological Terms Regional climatology Descriptive climatology
What is the most important of all the climatic elements? Temperature.
Evaporation is an important climatic element over which regions? When considered in relation to weather phenomena forming over bodies of water.
Why is the average amount of precipitation not a good way to compare the climate of two stations? Two stations could have the same amount of annual precipitation, but it could occur in different months or on different days during these months, and the intensity could vary.
Which element of precipitation includes such deposits as dew, frost, and rime ice? Condensation.
Climatologists are mostly interested in which elements of wind? Wind direction, speed, and gustiness.
What is obtained by dividing each wind observation into components, making a summation for a given period, and then obtaining averages and converting components into a single vector? The vectorial average.
statistical terms The number of times a certain value occurs in a specified period Frequency.
statistical terms The average value that any element is found to have on a specified date or time. Normal.
statistical terms The highest and lowest values for any given meteorological element that have been recorded at the place of observation Absolute.
statistical terms The highest and lowest value for a particular element for a particular period. Extreme.
statistical terms The difference between the highest and lowest values. Range.
What two factors influence the angle at which the sun’s rays reach the earth and the number of sun hours each day? The distance from the equator and season of the year.
Typically how much sunlight does a station near the equator receive? About 12 hours.
Why does the air over land have a wider diurnal range in temperature than air over water? Because the mixing process sharply reduces temperature contrast for layers over water in contrast to the layers over land.
Explain why daytime temperatures are warmer and nighttime temperatures are cooler over a plowed field than over a forest The forest provides a greenhouse effect to the underlying ground, while the plowed field is not protected.
What is the effect of land and water distribution on air circulation in the Northern Hemisphere? The uneven distribution of land and water in the Northern Hemisphere causes the high- and low-pressure belts associated with the wind system to break down into separate closed centers of high and low pressure.
Do all land areas near the equator have the same climate classification regardless of altitude? Explain. No. A place located in the high mountains on the equator would have a climate different from a place located a few feet above sea level at the same latitude.
Do mountain barriers influence climate? Explain Yes. Mountain barriers have an important influence on climate—especially the long, high chains that act as divides. These obstacles deflect the tracks of cyclones and block the passage of air masses in the lower levels.
Which mountains prevent polar air masses from moving southward? The Himalayas and the Alps.
Which sides of mountains (windward or leeward) receive the greatest amount of precipitation? The windward sides.
How do pressure systems serve as a climate control? major circulation patterns cause the winds that control the movement of air (air masses) from one region to another. The semipermanent pressure centers are the major controls and the migratory pressure centers are extensions of the semipermanent centers.
How are high pressures systems displaced in the southern hemisphere during the summer? Southward.
What causes ocean currents? The ocean currents are produced mainly by the frictional effects of the prevailing winds on the ocean surface.
What is the basic cause for deflection of ocean currents and air? Coriolis force.
Explain the difference between the ocean currents along the east coasts and those along the west coasts in the mid latitudes. Why? ocean currents along the east coasts are primarily warm currents and the currents along the west coasts are primarily cold currents. The reason for this is that the primary circulation of the ocean currents in the mid-latitudes is anticyclonic
Define upwelling. Upwelling is the process by which the colder subsurface waters are brought to the top of the ocean
What causes upwelling in the Northern Hemisphere and how does it affect the surface water? Upwelling is caused by wind blowing parallel to the coast with the coast on the left side of the wind. This causes the surface water to be transported to the right and away from the coast.
Where does upwelling normally occur in the Northern Hemisphere? Upwelling commonly occurs on the west coast in the Northern Hemisphere.
How does the Gulf Stream system influence the weather along the east coast of the US? The Gulf Stream system has a warming influence on the east coast of the US.
How fast do the currents of the Gulf Stream system move? 25–75 miles per day or 1–3 knots.
What portion of the Gulf Stream system does the Gulf Stream make up and where does it originate? Middle portion. It begins near Cape Hatteras
What is the effect of the North Atlantic Current on the climate of northwestern Europe? Causes the climate to be much milder than ordinarily expected
Even though the North Pacific Ocean Currents are very similar to the currents of the North Atlantic Ocean, there are some distinct differences. Describe the main cause of these differences. The large amount of subarctic water in the North Pacific Ocean versus the small amount in the North Atlantic.
Where does the North Equatorial Current originate? It originates near the western coast of Central America.
What North Atlantic current/system is similar to the Kuroshio system? The Gulf Stream system.
Name the branches into which the Kuroshio system divides. The Kuroshio Current, the Kuroshio Extension, and the North Pacific Current.
In spring, what effect does the California Current have on the western coast of the US? Spring temperatures are lower than winter temperatures where the upwelling is intense. Where the upwelling is moderate, the winter temperatures are lower.
What is the atmospheric circulation that influences the ocean currents in the South Atlantic Ocean? The currents of the South Atlantic Ocean show the effects of the South Atlantic anticyclone.
What causes the ocean currents in the northern Indian Ocean to reverse directions between the February/March and August/September time frames? currents of the northern Indian Ocean are influenced by the monsoonal flow. In February/March the northern Indian Ocean is under the influence of the northeast monsoon; in August/September, it is under the influence of the southwest monsoon.
What is the effect of a forest on local temperatures? Temperature maximums are lower and minimums are higher in forests than the surrounding area.
How is evaporation affected by forests? Moisture on trees evaporates readily, while the moisture on the ground does not readily evaporate, nor run off easily.
What is the effect of large settlements on the temperature? Why? Atmospheric pollution affects the normal radiation balance. Therefore, the daily maximum and minimum temperatures are higher
What causes a greater amount of cloudiness and slightly higher amounts and frequencies of rain over cities? The larger heat source concentration increases convective currents in these areas.
Name the five basic climatic zones The Torrid (or Tropical) Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Polar Zones (or Frigid Zones).
What are the boundaries of the five zones using the isothermal boundaries? the isothermal limits, the boundaries between the Tropical Zone and the Temperate zones are set by the two mean annual 68°Fisotherms. The boundaries between the Temperate Zones and the Polar Zones are fixed by the two 50°F isotherms for the warmest month.
What are the climatic elements upon which Köppen’s classifications are based? Temperature, precipitation amounts, and season of maximum precipitation. The numerical values for these elements were selected primarily on their effect on plant growth.
List the climatic elements on which Thornthwaite’s classifications are based. The effectiveness of precipitation, defined by the relationship between precipitation and evaporation
Describe the main difference in the basis of Köppen’s and Thornthwaite’s climatic classifications Köppen’s classification considers temperatures and precipitation; Thornthwaite’s classification does not consider temperature.
What are Köppen’s main climatic types? Thornthwaite’s? Köppen’s: Tropical rain, dry, humid mesothermal, humid microthermal, and polar. Thornthwaite’s: Wet, humid, subhumid, semiarid, and arid.
On what climatic classification system did Trewartha base his own classification system? Köppen.
What is the major feature of the land/sea breeze? It is a local feature that causes the wind direction to reverse from night to day.
When and where is the land/sea breeze most likely to occur? During the summer, near a coastline, under a weak pressure gradient. The sea breeze occurs during the late morning and afternoon hours. The land breeze occurs during the night and early morning.
What is the seasonal effect of the monsoonal circulation on India and Burma? summer weather conditions consist of continuous rain and widespread shower activity.winter, this area is under the influence of modified continental polar air with pleasant weather conditions.
What type of weather would be expected during the winter monsoon along the east coast of Indochina? from water to land, and this is the cloudy season. the continental polar air flowing southward over the East and South China Seas becomes sufficiently modified to produce extensive cloudiness and rain or drizzle. This phenomenon is called the Crachin.
What is the cause of the ravine wind? The pressure gradient acting along the ravine, with winds blowing directly from high pressure to low pressure
What are the two temperature indexes that forecasters calculate? Equivalent chill temperature and heat index.
What temperature value is used to calculate heating degree-days? 65.
calculate the heating degree-days. Max Min HDD (a) 50 30 ? 25
calculate the heating degree-days. Max Min HDD (a) 20 0 ? 55
calculate the heating degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)10 -10 ? 65
calculate the heating degree-days. Max Min HDD (a) 25 15 ? 45
calculate the heating degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)71 63 ? 0
What temperature value is used to calculate cooling degree-days? 65
calculate the cooling degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)70 60 ? 25
calculate the cooling degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)83 72 ? 55
calculate the cooling degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)94 80 ? 65
calculate the cooling degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)82 68 ? 45
calculate the cooling degree-days. Max Min HDD (a)102 76 ? 0
statistical climate product Provides monthly summaries of temperatures, dewpoint, altimeter setting, relative humidity, and pressure altitude changes by hour for stations with available surface observations MODCURVES.
statistical climate product Monthly tables that give the frequency of occurrence for specified weather thresholds of ceiling and visibility stratified by wind direction WSCC.
statistical climate product Summarizes surface hourly observations and “summary of day” for a given weather station SOCS.
statistical climate product A collection of climatological products that assists engineers in the design constructions and maintenance of buildings EWD.
statistical climate product Manually prepared summary of monthly and annual climatic data. OCDS.
Describe a macroscale system. largest systems in forecasting-systems cover more than 1,500nm-duration is from several days to over a week. Macroscale systems include long waves, semipermanent cyclones and anticyclones, and seasonal circulations.
Describe a synoptic system. Vary in horizontal size frm 500 to 1,000nm & have a life cycle of tens of hours to several include migratory cyclones, anticyclones, and air masses; frontal systems; &tropical cyclones. Synoptic systems influence a station’s weather the most
Describe a mesoscale system. Vary in size frm 1 to 500 nm and are considered “local effects.” last from tens of min to several hours. Examples are squall lines, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and land/sea breezes.impact on the weather, by influencing the weather caused by synoptic systems
List five examples of synoptic systems. Any five of the following: Anticyclone, subtropical cyclone, mid-altitude cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, typhoon, warm front, cold front, stationary front, occluded front, or dry line
List four examples of mesoscale systems. Any four of the following: Mesohigh, Mesocyclone, Tornado cyclone, Mesolow, Gust front, Radar thin line, Arc-cloud line, or Sea breeze front
What is a weather regime? A specific synoptic and/or mesoscale weather pattern, which affects the weather at a particular location.Weather regimes are often named for synoptic systems and their development regions, such as the “Texas Low” in the US, or the “Shanghai Low” in Asia.
Which AFWA computer program is useful for obtaining information on weather regimes? List the overseas versions of the program. Meteorological Technical Information Program(MetTIPs)developed software program that outputs regime information on weather patterns all over the world.Overseas versions of the program are European Theater thereis EuroTIPs, Pacific Theater there is PacTIPs
What regime information is available via MetTIPs Regime freq, duration, & seasons most often occurs; descript of surface & upper-level features; general weather conditions associated w/ each regime, to include potential forecast problems; & special analysis &forecast tools, products, & techniques to use
Explain the forecast funnel. The forecast funnel is the process of analyzing at the largest scale first (macroscale), then focusing downward to the smallest scale (mesoscale).
How do macroscale systems influence synoptic systems? They influence the movement because a system’s track is dependent upon the long wave pattern. A system’s development is dependent upon its relative position and the amplitude of long wave troughs and ridges
What affect does the zonal index have on surface systems? it affects a system’s speed & its north to south movement. In a long wave pattern with a high zonal index, systems normally move rapidly west to east. However, in a situation with a low zonal index, systems move more north to south and generally slower.
Describe the affect that long wave trough and ridge amplitude has on synoptic systems deepLWtrough will deepen low ahead of trough w/strong divergence.shallowLWtrough wont efectivly deepen low position ahead-strong amplitudeLWridge efectivly strengthen high position ahead-weak amplitudeLWridge wont as efectivly strengthn high located ahead
Name three different types of analysis used to identify the long wave pattern. Some standard products to use are satellite water vapor analysis, 5-wave analysis charts, and 500 MB hemispheric charts
What must a forecaster do if analyzed weather features represent a mixture of two or more different synoptic weather regimes? remember the resulting weather may favor one, both, or some combination of the two regimes. The regime information for both systems must be reviewed. The interaction of the two regimes must be evaluated and considered
What are some standard products to use for mesoscale analysis? Surface and upper air charts focused on the mesoscale, soundings, wind profiler data, and high-resolution satellite. Fine-scale model data can also be helpful in revealing mesoscale features.
List at least four examples of regime forecasting tools. List at least four of the following: WSR–88D RPS lists, alert paired products, two-degree isotherm analysis at 850 MB and 500 MB, 500 MB height fall analysis, or surface pressure fall analysis.
Name ways you can assist a unit’s regime forecasting program Documenting information from forecasting reviews or case studies and disseminating regime information to unit personnel via training seminars
Describe three challenges to producing an accurate forecast 1atmosphere continually in motion from macro-meso. 2forecasts cover continuous time frame valid 24hs,but charts normally provide data in 6& 12hr increments. 3forecasters must determine if centralized data reliable. If no adjustments must be made to model
Explain how forecast worksheets assist forecasters in efficiently using their time? Forecasters do the majority of their analysis during slack times. Then document their analysis after it’s completed; therefore, making the most efficient use of their time.
List three characteristics of an effective forecast worksheet and describe each one Purpose – each entry on the worksheet must be significant to the forecast. Simplicity – entries cannot be so complicated that it becomes impractical to complete the forecast worksheet. Content – a good worksheet follows the forecast funnel.
Why is it impossible for AF Weather to use an identical forecast worksheet at all locations? Because different units tailor the worksheet to meet their operational needs, forecast requirements and weather patterns
What is the first meteorological entry on most forecast worksheets? Why? Hemispheric analysis because entries follow the forecast funnel approach.
Name some significant features on METSAT that should be documented on the forecast worksheet Significant cloud/non-cloud features, upper level circulation, weather systems analysis, and low level circulation.
Describe the two steps for extracting information about the synoptic analysis to document on the forecast worksheet Identification is the process of recognizing significant synoptic features that will influence the weather in your forecast area. Interrogation includes determining how advection, vertical motions, and other dynamic are affected by the synoptic pattern
When is the best time to document a description of your radar analysis? Near to the actual forecast time
Describe the VIV process. V compare prev 12hr forecast positions w/current 00hr forecast positions for same time. I-compare 00hr forecast positions w/your analysis for same time. V compare current 12hr forecast with real time data for same time determine how well model performing
Identify the climatological product that must be reviewed before issuing a forecast. WSSC tables.
What part of the forecast worksheet is used to enter the justification for your forecast? Forecast reasoning.
US climatic regions Weather results mainly from occluded frontal phenomena and orographic lifting of moist stable maritime air; rainfall is most frequent in winter. Northeastern area.
US climatic regions In winter, the main weather hazards are caused by outbreaks along the polar front and associated waves. In summer, the main hazard is convective air-mass thunderstorms that are most violent if they have developed in mT air Southwest Pacific coast area.
US climatic regions This area is a convergence zone where weather systems moving from the west and from the south meet and intensify. Severe thunderstorms are normally associated with squall lines. Southeast and Gulf states area.
US climatic regions Conditions similar to Mediterranean.Cold fronts rarely penetrate summer air is stable;stratus and fog result. winter, air is unstable-causing showers & sometimes SNSH in mountains. Little-no rainfall summer &only lgt to mod rain winter West central intermountain area
US climatic regionsThe more northerly sections have cold winters and all parts have extremely hot summers. The area is either very arid or actual desert. The chief flying hazards are thunderstorms forming along the mountains during the spring and summer Southwest desert and mountain area.
US climatic regions This climate is generally cold and dry in winter & warm & dry in the summer. Most of the region is semiarid. Maximum rainfall occurs in spring due to the predominance of storm track passages during this season.Annual precipn is lgt. Central plains area.
US climatic regions Cold frontal passages may be expected only in the late fall, winter, and early spring. The southerly circulation in the summer causes warm moist air to be heated. Severe convective thunderstorms are quite common The Northwest Pacific coast area.
Where is mountainous terrain located in Canada? British Columbia.
Describe the effect of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of Canada. It modifies the east coastal region by keeping it warmer during winter, protecting it from the harshness of winter experienced inland.
Why do cities like Edmonton and Calgary experience warmer temperatures than other cities in southern central Canada? Because air is adiabatically warmed as it descends the east side of the Rockies.
Why does the west coast of Canada experience warmer winters, on average, than the rest of the country? Because the Rocky Mountains act as a barrier to the very cold air masses that move down from the north interior of Canada.
Would Anchorage or Fairbanks experience warmer temperatures during the winter? Why? Anchorage. Because it is located on the coast and the warm current of the ocean modifies temperatures significantly
Why does the coastal region of Alaska experience more changing weather patterns than the interior of the state? Because the average storm track is along this region along with an abundance of moisture
What can generally be said of the mountain ranges of Europe that has a definite affect on the climate of the region? The main ranges are oriented from west to east. Thus, they prevent cold air from the north from interacting with warmer air from the south
What kind of air mass is present in Europe that produces low-temperature extremes, low humidity, and clear skies? Continental air masses in winter.
Where in Europe would you anticipate minimal temperature extremes? Atlantic coastal regions.
What is the most prominent topographical feature of Asia and what is the orientation of this feature? The Himalaya Mountains, which are oriented from east to west.
How would you classify the Asian climate?* Predominantly continental.
Why aren’t the African climates north and south of the equator similar? Because the land mass north of the equator is much larger than the southern region.
How does the NECZ move with seasonal changes? The NECZ moves northward during the Northern Hemisphere’s summer and southward in the winter.
What causes the Sahara Desert region to become very cool at night when, in contrast, daylight hour temperatures are very high? Due to the lack of moisture in the air, radiational cooling maximizes.
What is the cause of Sub-equatorial Africa’s wet fall and winter? Seasonal rainfall associated with the position of the NECZ.
Which region of Africa averages over 120 inches of rainfall annually in some areas? Equatorial Africa.
Describe a forecast review. An after-the-fact review of the observations, analyses, and forecast aids that were available to the forecaster. They are conducted to determine whether existing unit procedures were adequate, and identify ways to correct the forecast
Explain the use of a forecast study. It is sometimes called an in-depth reanalysis. In the course of a forecast study, considerable effort is used to collect and present the data
What is a forecast seminar? A presentation developed and performed by weather personnel for the purpose of giving or discussing weather information
List four example topics for a forecast seminar. Any four of following: Forecasts reviews and lessons learned, Climatology, TFRN changes, technical notes and manuals, terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) worksheets, LAFP, observing procedures, Doppler radar operation, or meteorological satellite analysis.
State the purpose of a forecast review To improve forecasting—plain and simple. They are not punitive. Instead, they are learning tools for the forecasters who prepare them and all who read them.
List the four reasons a forecast review may be required (1)If, after a forecast evaluation, a forecast fails to meet satisfactory standards; (2)after a forecaster improperly follows forecast procedures;(3)after a forecaster issues an outstanding forecast (4)after the occurrence of a significant weatherevent
Give two reasons why a forecast study may be needed. Case studies are generally written to thoroughly investigate a weather scenario, or test and develop new forecasting techniques
What is the purpose of a forecast seminar? To present weather information to unit personnel.
When are forecast seminars normally presented, and what are some example format presentations? They will generally be presented at unit meetings. Presentation formats include the following: PowerPoint slides, hypertext markup language, and overhead slides.
State the first step in accomplishing a forecast review Compile pertinent data
What is the most important and urgent step in developing a forecast review? Compiling pertinent data.
What can happen if you wait too long before compiling data for a forecast review or study? If you wait too long you may miss the opportunity to save and copy data before its purged from your weather systems.
How can upper air charts help your review or study? Upper air charts will aid in determining the long wave and synoptic patterns that were in effect for the forecast
Is it necessary to verify the NWS analysis on the surface charts? Why? Yes. Because the analysis needs to be checked for accuracy.
How can MetSAT pictures be used in the review or study? MetSAT imagery will be used to identify longwave location, jet support, cloud development, and general synoptic circulation
Is it helpful to look at the forecasts from other stations when accomplishing a review? Why? Yes. Because you could find a unit’s forecast for the event that was accurate and open a line of communication with them to get the information they used.
How can a Skew-T diagram be used for a study or review? Skew-T will be used to show stability, clouds, icing, turbulence, and many more phenomenon
State the importance of conducting a reanalysis To correct mistakes or to find features that were originally missed.
What analysis approach should be used to construct a logical three-dimensional description of the atmosphere? The forecast funnel
Describe an event scenario It is a chronological list of weather events and their potential causes
What is the purpose in investigating the potential causes of a weather episode? Each potential cause should be investigated to determine its contribution in the weather episode and eventually lead to the determination of which were chiefly responsible
How is the event scenario to be used in the process of independently verifying the data? To investigate each of the potential causes to a weather episode and determined its contribution.
How may the process of determining the root causes to a weather event differ in the forecast review and study development? Developing a review requires you to determine the root causes that were missed in your original reasoning, while a study requires you to present all the causes of a weather episode in your documentation.
List the five general topical areas of a documented forecast review. Synoptic description, reasoning used, verification, results, and lessons learned
What is the purpose of the synoptic description? To provide an introduction and rough guide to the synoptic classification.
Why is it necessary to include your original reasoning in the documentation of a forecast review? It can indicate better ways to do the job as well as define any misinterpretations of existing guidance
What is the purpose of a forecast review if the causes of the weather are imperfectly known? To help build a database that can be used to improve the knowledge and understanding of the event.
What is the most important section of forecast review? Lessons learned
What is the best way to format suggestions provided in the lessons learned? To format suggestions is in such a way that they are easily incorporated into unit procedures
List the five steps in developing a forecast seminar. Research the subject, support your ideas, develop an outline, construct audio-visual aids, and set-up and present the seminar.
What is the first step in researching a subject? Determine what you already know before looking elsewhere
List the five potential cures for weak support. Examples, statistics, testimony, comparison and contrast, and explanation.
Name the three-part arrangement that most communications follow. Introduction, body, and conclusion.
Explain the topical pattern. This pattern presents the information in divisions based on key elements of the subject matter
Explain the chronological pattern This pattern discusses events, problems, or processes in the sequence of time in which they take place or should take place.
Explain the geographical pattern In this pattern the information in the presentation is divided according to geographical region
What is the underlying purpose of having audio-visual aids in a forecast seminar? To help relay your message
List some of the essential equipment you should set-up prior giving a forecast seminar. Essential equipment includes lights, computers, audio-visual aids, and any other items you will need during the seminar
What is the best way to overcome being uncomfortable speaking in front of people? Rehearse.
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